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  1 STUDENTS’ MASTERYIN USING ADVERBSAT ENGLISH STUDY PROGRAM OFSINTUWU MAROSO UNIVERSITYBy. Sherliane T. PoaiABSTRACT The objectives of the research wereto describe the types of adverb used bysixth semester students of English Education Study Program in Sintuwu MarosoUniversity.Type and approach of research wasqualitative research.The source of the research was thesixth semesterstudentsof English Education Study Program atSintuwu Maroso UniversityPoso. The subject of the research consisted of 27students. The findings of the research werethe kindsofadverb used by the studentsin their writing text were adverbs of manner was 35,60%, adverbs of place was32,46%, adverb of time was 2,62%, adverb of frequency 13,09%, adverb of degreewas 15,18% and adverb that make a comment was 1,05%. The kind of adverb withhighest percentage was adverb of manner or 35,60%. The kind of adverb withlowest percentage used by the students was adverb that make a comment or 1,05%. Itmeant the commonly adverbused by the sixth semester students of EnglishEducation Study Program in Sintuwu Maroso Posoisadverb of manner.Theproblems faced by the students in using adverb were students have no enoughknowledge the using of kinds adverb, the function of adverbs, the placement and theimportance of adverbs in the sentence. It was found in their process of writing.Keywords: Students’ Mastery, Adverb INTRODUCTION Averbs are admitted to be very important as a part of daily conversation.adverbs make conversation sounds interesting and convenient to use. Without goodachievement of adverb, one will find difficulties in speaking English smoothly andfluently.The factis many studentsavoid in using adverbswhen they were speakingor writingbecause useadverbsis dificult for them. The students stillconfuse todetermine which the correct adverb in composing the sentences and students is alsodifficult in distinguishthe adverb and the adjective.As the university students ’ mastery of adverb is very important because theyare faced with the many written assignmentespcialy the students prepare theirself inwriting their skripsi. When they will write they have to mastery in grammar  2especially in usingadverb. Adverb also is frequently used in daily communication.Besides,allwritten materials such as text books, novels, news papers, magazines, etcuseadverbs. Good mastery of adverbs is very helpful for them to get the message thematerial conveys. On the contrary, poor mastery on the using of adverbscause adifficultforthe studentsto get the message on information. a. Definition of Adverb The term adverb is used to refer to "a heterogenous group of items, whose mostfrequent function is to specify the mode of action of the verb." (Crystal, 1980:16).An adverbmay modify a verb "by giving circumstantial information about the time,place or manner in which an action, process takes place". (Finch, 2000:84).In addition to the characteristic of modifying verbs, adverbs can modify otherparts of speech. For most linguists an adverb can modify an adjective, a verb, oranother adverb. Such adverbs can answer the questions where?, when?, how?, howoften?, how much?, etc.Adverb are used to give us more information and are used to modify verbs,clauses, and other adverbs. The difficulty with identifying adverb is that they canappear in different places in a sentence. The simplest way to recognize an adverb isthrough the common ending  –  ly. Example: quickly, quietly, fortunatetly. Mostadverbs are made by adding  –  ly toadjectives. b. Learning of Adverb Many people think that they need to master grammar. Veit Richard (1986)believes that the main reason we study grammar is that we human beings are curiosand want to learn more about ourselves. The study how we create language canprovide important insights into the nature of our minds and the way we think. It canhelp us to understand better what it means to be human (Richard, 1986:2)Mastering grammatical components are important to facilitatecommunication. By mastering grammar components, the writer believes that studentscan combine sentence correctly. It can be seen from the opinion that students cancombine sentence correctly. It can be seen from the opcion from Jeremi Harmer(2001) that the grammar of a language is the description of the way in which wordcan change their form and can be combined into sentence in that language (Harmer,  32001:12). In learning English grammar, adverbs are some of grammaticalcomponents which are learned by students.Learning adverbswill help student to give more information aboutsomething. An adverb as a word that adds more information about place, time,circumstance, manner, cause, degree, etc to a verb, an adjective, a phrase or anotheradverb. (Hornby, 1995:18) Beside of that, according to Robert C. Pooley (1957), Anadverb is a word, a word that behaves in a sentence like the word reddish. (Pooley,1957:109)c. Clasification of Adverb by Function Ed Swick (2009) give tiypes of adverbs with manner, time, frequency,degree, and place, as well as adverbs that providea comment on situatuaition. Theexplanation the types of adverbs as follow:1)Adverb of mannerAdverb of manneris used in sentence totell how something is done.Thepattern adverb of manner is adjective + ly.For examplethe using of adverb of manner in sentences as follow:a)Martin droveslowly(How did he drive? Slowly)b)Icarefully removed the battery (How did I remove the battery?Carefully)Adverb of manner can be individual words of phrases.a)Adverb of manner with individual words for examples:badly,politelyandsarcastically.b)Adverb of manner with phrases for example:in anger,with a sly grin,andwith great sadness2)Adverb of time such es now, still, yesterday, just, finally and Sunday tell when something occurred. Adverbs of time are paret of a cateofy thatincludes individual words. Phrases, and clause.a)Adverb of time with individual wordsfor example:finally,recently, andtodayb)Adverb for time with phrase: usually started with preposition of time, forexample:During the exam, in the spring, and on Monday  4c)Adverb of time with clausesfor example :After the game endedand sinceshe arrived here3)Adverb of degreeAdverb of degreeis used totell to what extent something is done.Forexample the commonly adverbs of degree were: adequately, almost, entirelyand extremely.Adverbs of degree are used to modifyverbs, adjectives, or other advebrs. Forexample, the use of adverbs to modify verb and adjective in the followingsenteces:a)the children enjoy the circus immenselyb)She isan extremely beautiful woman4)Adverb of PlaceAdverbsof placeareused totell where an action occurs. Some of theseadverbs are single wordsand some of them are in phrase.a)Adverb of place in single word for example:abroad,anywhere, andhere.b)Adverb of place in phrase form, particulary in prepositional phrases, forexample:Alongside the road, at homeand over there.5)Adverb of FrequencyAdverbsof frequencyare used totell how often something occurs.Adverb of frequency alsocan be individual words or phrase.a)Adverb of frequency with individual words for example: never,sometimes, usually or always.b)When an adverb of frequency is an individual word, it tends to stand justbefore the verb, for example, adverbs offrequency in phrases: at times, inthe rarest of moments and with great frequency.6)Adverbs that make a commentAdverbsmake a comment on a situation. Adverbs that make a comment identify the speaker’s or writer’s viewpoint or opinion on the subject matter  of a sentence.Adverbsof that make a comment are used in context, theyshow the degree to which the speaker or writer agrees or disagrees with astatement. These adverbs also show disapproval or skepticism.Some  5commonly used comment of view point adverbs such as: bravely, carelessly,and certainlyetc. c. Adverb Formation In English, adverbs can be formed by some rules as follows:1)Adding the derivational suffix (-ly) to derived adjectives. Derived adjectivesare made from noun + suffix (-ful,-less,-ive, etc). The derived adverbs canbe formed are: healthily, remarkably, hopefully, etc.2)Adding the derivational suffix (-ly) to base adjectives, examples: slowly,strangely, falsely, usually, etc.3)Adding the derivational prefix (a) to nouns, stems, adjectives, examples: ahead, a part, a slide, a long, a broad, etc.4)Adding derivational suffix (-wise) to noun, example: lengthwise, actor wise,etc.5)Adding derivational suffix (-ward) to limited group of nouns, example:backward, homeward, forward. The process number 1  –  5 is called affixationprocess.6)Combining the noun determiners (some, any, every, no) with a limited list of nouns and function words, for example: someplace, somewhere, anywhere,nobody, etc.7)Use of certain function words (particles/preposition) as adverbs, examples:up,down, out, over, etc. d.The Position of Adverbs There are 3 possible positions of adverbs as follows:1)Initial/front position. It means that adverb can be placed in the beginning of asentence. Example:TomorrowI am going to go to your office.2)Mid position. It means that adverb can be placed at the mid of a sentence,example:We areusuallyhappy to see you.3)End/final position It means that adverb can be placed at the end of a sentence,example:
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