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1. CHAPTER 6 TRAINING EVALUATION INTRODUCTION:  TRAINING EFFECTIVENESS REFERS TO THE BENEFITS THAT THE O & THE TRAINEES RECEIVE FROM TRAINING  TRAINING CRITERIA…
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  • 1. CHAPTER 6 TRAINING EVALUATION INTRODUCTION:  TRAINING EFFECTIVENESS REFERS TO THE BENEFITS THAT THE O & THE TRAINEES RECEIVE FROM TRAINING  TRAINING CRITERIA OR OUTCOMES REEFERS TO THE MEASURES THAT THE TRAINER & THE O USE TO EVALUATE TRAINING PROGRAM  TRAINING EVALUATION REFERS TO THE PROCESS OF COLLECTING THE OUTCOMES NEEDED TO DETERMINE IF -TRAINING IS EFFECTIVE  EVALUATION DESIGN REFERS TO FROM WHOM, WHAT, & HOW INFORMATION NEEDED FOR DETERMINING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE TRAINING PROGRAM WILL BE COLLECTED REASONS FOR EVALUATING TRAINING  INVESTMENT IN TRAINING IS DONE TO GAIN COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE  FOLLOWING ARE THE TYPES OF EVALUATION: o FORMATIVE o SUMMATIVE  FORMATIVE EVALUATION REFERS TO EVALUATION CONDUCTED TO IMPROVE THE TRAINING PROCESS. ONE METHOD IS PILOT TESTING  SUMMATIVE EVALUATION REFERS TO EVALUATION CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT TO WHICH TRAINEES HAVE CHANGED AS A RESULT OF PARTICIPATING IN THE TRAINING PROGRAM
  • 2. OVERVIEW OF THE EVALUATION PROCESS:  `CONSISTS OF THE FOLLOWING STEPS: o DETERMINING TRAINING NEEDS IN TERMS OF K/ S / B WHICH SHOULD RESULT IN INCREASING THE CAPABILITIES OF THE EMPLOYEES o IDENTIFY SPECIFIC MEASURABLE TRAINING OBJECTIVES TO GUIDE THE PROGRAM. IF OBJECTIVES ARE CLEAR; THEN IT I EASIER TO IDENTIFY RELEVANT OUTCOMES FOR EVALUATION o DETERMINE THE EVALUATION STRATEGY. CHOOSE AN EVALUATION STRATEGY. PLAN & EXECUTE THE EVALUATION OUTCOMES USED IN TRAINING PROGRAMS  D.L.KIRKPATRICK’S FOUR-LEVEL FRAMEWORK FOR CATEGORIZING TRAINING OUTCOMES IS FOLLOWED LEVEL CRITERIA FOCUS 1 REACTIONS TRAINEE SATISFACTION 2 LEARNING ACQUISITION OF K / S / A /B 3 BEHAVIOUR IMPROVEMENT OF BEHAVIOUR ON THE JOB 4 RESULTS BUSINESS RESULTS ACHIEVED BY THE TRAINEES  BOTH LEVEL 1 & 2 CRITERIA ARE COLLECTED BEFORE TRAINEES RETURN TO THEIR JOB  LEVEL 3 & 4 CRITERIA MEASURE THE DEGREE TO WHICH TRAINEES ARE USING TRAINING CONTENT ON THE JOB. IT DETERMINES TRANSFER OF TRAINING CLASSIFICATION OF TRAINING OUTCOMES
  • 3.  TRAINING OUTCOMES ARE CLASSIFIED INTO FIVE CATEGORIES: o COGNITIVE OUTCOMES o SKILL-BASED OUTCOMES o AFFECTIVE OUTCOMES o RESULTS o RETURN ON INVESTMENT  COGNITIVE OUTCOMES: o DETERMINE THE DEGREE TO WHICH TRAINEES ARE FAMILIAR WITH PRINCIPLES, FACTS, TECHNIQUES, PROCEDURES OR PROCESSES EMPHASIZED IN THE TRAINING PROGRAM o CORRESPONDS TO LEVEL 2 OF KIRPATRICK’S MODEL o PAPER & PENCIL TESTS ARE USED TO ASSESS COGNITIVE OUTCOMES  SKILL BASED OUTCOMES: o IT INCLUDES ACQUISITION OR LEARNING OF SKILLS & USE OF SKILLS ON THE JOB o IT CAN BE EVALUATED BY OBSERVATION o CORRESPONDS TO LEVEL 2 OF KIRKPATRICK’S MODEL  AFFECTIVE OUTCOMES: o INCLUDES ATTITUDES & MOTIVATION o ONE TYPE OF AFFECTIVE OUTCOME I TRAINEE’S REACTIONS TOWARD THE TRAINING PROGRAM o REACTIONS ARE USEFUL FOR IDENTIFYING WHAT TRAINEES THOUGHT WAS SUCCESSFUL & INHIBITED LEARNING o IT IS COLLECTED AT THE PROGRAM’ CONCLUSION o REACTION OUTCOMES ARE COLLECTED VIA QUESTIONNAIRE, INTERVIEWS, & FOCUS GROUPS  RESULTS:
  • 4. o ARE USED TO DETERMINE THE TRAINING PROGRAM’S PAYOFF FOR THE O. o INCLUDES REDUCED COSTS, RELATED TO EMPLOYEE TURNOVER OR ACCIDENTS, INCREASED PRODUCTION & IMPROVEMENTS IN PRODUCT QUALITY OR CUSTOMER SERVICE o IT IS MEASURED BY OBSERVATION  RETURN ON INVESTMENT  COMPARING THE TRAINING’S MONETARY BENEFITS WITH THE COST OF TRAINING  COST COULD BE DIRECT OR INDIRECT  BENEFITS REFERS TO WHAT VALUE THE O GAINS FROM THE TRAINING PROGRAM HOW DO WE KNOW IF OUR OUTCOMES ARE GOOD?  GOOD TRAINING OUTCOMES NEED TO BE o RELEVANT, o RELIABLE, o DISCRIMINATE o PRACTICAL  RELEVANT: o THE EXTENT TO WHICH TRAINING OUTCOMES ARE RELATED TO THE LEARNING CAPABILITIES IN THE TRAINING PROGRAMS o TRAINING OUTCOMES MAY LACK RELEVANCE IN THE FOLLOWING WAYS:  CRITERIA CONTAMINATION  CRITERION DEFICIENCY  CRITERIA CONTAMINATION REFERS TO THE EXTENT THAT THE TRAINING OUTCOMES MEASURE INAPPROPRIATE CAPABILITIES
  • 5.  CRITERION DEFICIENCY REFERS TO THE FAILURE TO MEASURE TRAINING OUTCOMES THAT WERE EMPHASIZED IN THE TRAINING OBJECTIVES  RELIABILITY o REFERS TO THE DEGREE TO WHICH OUTCOMES CAN BE MEASURED CONSISTENTLY OVER TIME o A RELIABLE TEST IS ONE THAT INCLUDES ITEMS FOR WHICH THE MEANING OR INTERPRETATION OF THESE ITEMS BY THE TRAINEES DOE NOT CHANGE OVER TIME o A RELIABLE TEST ALLOWS THE TRAINER TO HAVE CONFIDENCE THAT ANY IMPROVEMENTS IN POST-TRAINING TEST SCORES FROM PRE-TRAINING LEVELS RESULT FROM LEARNING THAT OCCURRED IN THE TRAINING PROGRAM NOT FROM TEST CHARACTERISTICS  DISCRIMINATION o REFERS TO THE DEGREE TO WHICH TRAINEE’S PERFORMANCE ON THE OUTCOME ACTUALLY REFLECT TRUE DIFFERENCES IN PERFORMANCE o THIS SHOULD BE ON ACCOUNT OF CHANGE IN THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE TRAINEE AFTER UNDERGOING TRAINING PROGRAM  PRACTICALITY o REFERS TO THE EASE WITH WHICH THE OUTCOMES MEASURES CAN BE COLLECTED ASSIGNMENTS 1. WHAT CAN BE DONE TO MOTIVATE COMPANIES TO EVALUATE TRAINING PROGRAM?
  • 6. 2. WHAT ARE RESULTS OUTCOMES? WHY DO YOU THINK THAT MOST ORGANIZATIONS DON’T USE RESULTS OUTCOMES FOR EVALUATING THEIR TRAINING PROGRAMS? 3. VISIT AN INDUSTRY, & FIND OUT HOW DO THEY CALCULATE RETURN ON INVESTMENT ON TRAINING? 4. VISIT AN INDUSTRY, & FIND OUT WHETHER THE TRAINING PROGRAM HELD LAST YEAR WERE OUTCOMES OF ORGANIZATION STRATEGIES?
  • 7. CHAPTER 7 TRADITIONAL TRAINING METHODS INTRODUCTION:  TRAINING METHOD CAN BE CATEGORIZED INTO THREE TYPES: o PRESENTATION METHOD o HANDS ON METHOD o GROUP BUILDING METHOD  EACH METHOD HAS ITS OWN ADVANTAGE & DISADVANTAGES PRESENTATION METHOD:  TRAINEE ARE PASSIVE RECIPIENTS OF INFORMATION  INCLUDE: o LECTURES o AUDIO VISUAL TECHNIQUES  LECTURE: o TRAINEE COMMUNICATE THROUGH SPOKEN WORD WHAT SHE WANT THE TRAINEE TO LEARN o COMMUNICATION IS ONE WAY o LEAST EXPENSIVE, & TIME CONSUMING o METHOD IS EFFICIENT o USED TO SUPPORT OTHER TRAINING METHODS LIKE BEHAVIOUR MODELLING & TECHNOLOGY BASED TECHNIQUE o TO MAKE THIS METHOD EFFECTIVE; BUILD THE FOLLOWING INTO THE LECTURE:  ACTIVE PARTICIPATION  JOB RELATED EXAMPLE  EXERCISE o THE ABOVE WILL FACILITATE LEARNING & TRANSFER OF TRAINING
  • 8.  AUDIO VISUAL TECHNIQUE: o INCLUDE OVERHEADS SLIDES, & VIDEO o USED TO IMPROVE COMMUNICATION KILLS, INTERVIEWING SKILL & CUSTOMER SERVICE SKILLS & FOR ILLUSTRATING HOW PROCEDURES SHOULD BE FOLLOWED o USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH LECTURE TO SHOW REAL LIFE EXPERIENCE & EXAMPLES o IT IS A MAJOR COMPONENT OF BEHAVIOUR MODELLING o HAS FOLLOWING ADVANTAGES:  TRAINER CAN REVIEW, LOW DOWN OR SPEED UP THE LESSON  TRAINEES ARE EXPOSE TO EQUIPMENT, PROBLEM, & EVENT THAT CANNOT BE EASILY DEMONSTRABLE  TRAINEE ARE PROVIDED WITH CONSISTENT INSTRUCTIONS  VIDEOTAPING ALLOWS THE TRAINEES TO SEE & HEAR THEIR OWN PERFORMANCE o HAS FOLLOWING DISADVANTAGES:  TOO MUCH CONTENT FOR THE TRAINEE TO LEARN  POOR DIALOGUE WITH TRAINER  OVERUSE OF HUMOUR OR MUSIC & DRAMA THAT MAKE IT CONFUSING FOR THE TRAINEE TO UNDERSTAND THE IMPORTANT LEARNING POINTS EMPHASIZED IN THE VIDEO HANDS ON METHODS  TRAINEE ACTIVELY INVOLVED IN LEARNING  METHODS INCLUDE
  • 9. o ON THE JOB TRAINING o SIMULATIONS o CASE STUDIES o BUSINESS GAME o ROLE PLAY o BEHAVIOUR MODELLING  ABOVE METHODS ARE IDEAL FOR DEVELOPING SPECIFIC SKILLS, UNDERSTANDING HOW SKILL & BEHAVIOUR CAN BE TRANSFERRED TO THE JOB, EXPERIENCING ALL ASPECTS OF COMPLETING A TASK OR DEALING WITH INTERPERSONAL ISSUE THAT ARISE ON THE JOB  ON THE JOB TRAINING [OJT] o REFERS TO NEW OR INEXPERIENCED EMPLOYEES LEARNING THROUGH OBSERVING PEERS OR MANAGERS PERFORMING THE JOB & TRYING TO IMITATE THEIR BEHAVIOUR o REQUIRES LESS INVESTMENT o UNSTRUCTURED OJT CAN RESULT IN POORLY TRAINED EMPLOYEES; OR EMPLOYEES USING INEFFECTIVE OR DANGEROUS METHODS TO PRODUCE A PRODUCT, PROVIDE A SERVICE o FOLLOWING ARE THE PRINCIPLES OF OJT:  PREPARING FOR INSTRUCTION: • BREAK DOWN THE JOB INTO IMPORTANT STEPS • PREPARE THE NECESSARY EQUIPMENTS, MATERIALS, & SUPPLIES • DECIDE HOW MUCH TIME YOU WILL DEVOTE TO OJT & WHEN YOU EXPECT THE EMPLOYEE TO BE COMPETENT IN SKILL AREAS
  • 10.  ACTUAL INSTRUCTION: • TELL THE TRAINEE THE OBJECTIVE OF THE TASK & ASK TO WATCH YOU DEMONSTRATE IT • SHOW THE TRAINEE HOW TO DO IT WITHOUT SAYING ANYTHING • EXPLAIN THE KEY POINTS OR BEHAVIOURS • SHOW THE TRAINEE HOW TO DO IT AGAIN • HAVE THE TRAINEE DO ONE OR MORE SINGLE PARTS OF THE TASK & PRAISE HIM FOR CORRECT REPRODUCTION • HAVE THE TRAINEE DO THE ENTIRE TASK & PRAISE FOR CORRECT REPRODUCTION • IF MISTAKES ARE MADE, HAVE THE TRAINEE PRACTICE UNTIL ACCURATE REPRODUCTION IS ACHIEVED • PRAISE THE TRAINEE FOR SUCCESS IN LEARNING THE TASK  SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING o INVOLVES EMPLOYEE TAKING RESPONSIBILITY FOR ALL ASPECTS OF LEARNING o TRAINERS SERVE AS FACILITATOR o FOLLOWING ARE THE ADVANTAGE:  TRAINEES LEARN AT THEIR OWN PACE  COST IS LESS  FEW TRAINERS ARE REQUIRED  CONSISTENT TRAINING CONTENT  BOON FOR SHIFT WORKING EMPLOYEE o FOLLOWING ARE THE DISADVANTAGES:  TRAINEES MUST BE COMFORTABLE LEARNING ON THEIR OWN.
  • 11.  TRAINEES MUST BE MOTIVATED TO LEARN  DEVELOPMENT TIME IS LONGER o FOLLOWING STEPS ARE NECESSARY TO DEVELOP EFFECTIVE SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING  CONDUCTING JOB ANALYSIS TO IDENTIFY THE TASK THAT MUST BE COVERED  WRITING TRAINEE-CENTERED LEARNING OBJECTIVES DIRECTLY RELATED TO THE TASKS. BECAUSE OBJECTIVES TAKES THE PLACE OF INSTRUCTOR, THEY MUST INDICATE WHAT INFORMATION IS IMPORTANT, WHAT ACTIONS THE TRAINEE SHOULD TAKE & WHAT SHOULD TRAINEE MASTER  DEVELOPING THE CONTENT OF FOR THE LEARNING PACKAGE  BREAKING THE CONTENT INTO SMALLER PIECES  DEVELOPING AN EVALUATION PACKAGE  APPRENTICESHIP: o IT INCLUDES BOTH ON THE JOB & CLASS ROOM TRAINING o THE OJT PORTION OF THE APPRENTICESHIP FOLLOWS THE GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE ON THE JOB TRAINING o MODELLING, PRACTICE, FEEDBACK & EVALUATION ARE INVOLVED o TRAINEE SHOULD HAVE THE REQUIRED KNOWLEDGE OF THE OPERATION OR PROCE
  • 12. o TRAINER DEMONSTRATE EACH STEP OF THE PROCESS, EMPHASIZING SAFETY ISSUE IN EACH STEP OF THE PROCESS o PROVIDE OPPORTUNITY TO THE TRAINEE TO PERFORM THE PROCESS o FOLLOWING IS THE ADVANTAGE:  EARN & LEARN  GETS QUALIFIED FOR FULL TIME JOB ON COMPLETION OF THE TRAINING o FOLLOWING IS THE DISADVANTAGE:  SPECIALIZED INTO ONE SKILL o IT IS AN IMPORTANT PART OF EDUCATION IN TRAINING IN MANY COUNTRIES  SIMULATION: o IT REPRESENTS A REAL LIFE SITUATION WITH TRAINEES’ DECISIONS RESULTING IN OUTCOMES THAT MIRROR WHAT WOULD HAPPEN IF THEY WERE ON THE JOB o ALLOWS TRAINEE TO SEE THE IMPACT OF THEIR DECISION IN AN ARTIFICIAL RISK FREE ENVIRONMENT o SIMULATORS REPLICATE THE PHYSICAL EQUIPMENT THAT EMPLOYEES USE ON THE JOB o SIMULATORS NEED TO HAVE IDENTICAL ELEMENTS TO THOSE FOUND IN THE WORK ENVIRONMENT  CASE STUDIES
  • 13. o IT IS A DESCRIPTION ABOUT HOW EMPLOYEE OR AN ORGANIZATION DEALT WITH A DIFFICULT SITUATION o TRAINEE ARE REQUIRED TO ANALYSE CRITIQUE THE ACTIONS TAKEN, INDICATING THE APPROPRIATE ACTION & SUGGESTING WHAT MIGHT HAVE BEEN DONE DIFFERENTLY o LEARNING TAKE PLACE THROUGH A PROCESS OF DISCOVERY o CASES DEVELOPS INTELLECTUAL SKILLS LIKE ANALYSIS, SYNTHESIS & EVALUATION o CASES ALSO HELP TRAINEES DEVELOP THE WILLINGNESS TO TAKE RISKS GIVEN UNCERTAIN OUTCOME, BASED ON THEIR ANALYSIS OF THE SITUATION o LEARNING ENVIRONMENT MUST BE CONDUCIVE PREPARE & DISCUSS THEIR CASE ANALYSIS  BUSINESS GAMES o REQUIRE TRAINEES TO GATHER INFORMATION, ANALYSE IT & MAKE DECISIONS o USED FOR MANAGEMENT KILL DEVELOPMENT o IT STIMULATES LEARNING. o DECISION INVOLVE ALL ASPECT OF MANAGEMENT PRACTICES  ROLE PLAY: o INVOLVE TRAINEES ACT OUT CHARACTERS ASSIGNED TO THEM o INFORMATION REGARDING THE SITUATION IS PROVIDED TO THE TRAINEES o ROLE PLAY MAY PROVIDE LIMITED INFORMATION REGARDING THE SITUATION, WHILE INFORMATION PROVIDED IN SIMULATION IS IN DETAIL
  • 14. o IT FOCUSES ON INTERPERSONAL RESPONSE; WHILE SIMULATION FOCUSES ON PHYSICAL RESPONSE o OUTCOMES DEPENDS ON THE EMOTIONAL REACTIONS OF OTHER TRAINEES, WHILE IN SIMULATION THE OUTCOME DEPEND UPON FAIRLY WELL DEFINED MODEL OF REALITY o FOR ROLE PLAY TO BE EFFECTIVE, TRAINERS NEED TO ENGAGE IN SEVERAL ACTIVITIES BEFORE DURING & AFTER THE ROLE PLAY o TRAINEES SHOULD DISCUSS THEIR FEELINGS, WHAT HAPPENED IN THE EXERCISE, WHAT THEY LEARNED  BEHAVIOUR MODELLING o INVOLVES PRESENTING TRAINEES WITH A MODEL WHO DEMONSTRATES KEY BEHAVIOURS TO REPLICATE & PROVIDES TRAINEES WITH THE OPPORTUNITY TO PRACTICE THE KEY BEHAVIOURS o IT I BASED ON THE PRINCIPLE OF SOCIAL LEARNING WHICH EMPHASISE THAT LEARNING OCCURS BY  OBSERVING BEHAVIOURS DEMONSTRATED BY A MODEL  SEEING THE MODEL BEING REINFORCED FOR USING THOSE BEHAVIOURS o IT IS MORE APPROPRIATE FOR LEANING SKILLS & BEHAVIOURS THAN FACTUAL INFORMATION o EFFECTIVE MODELLING DISPLAYS HAVE SIX CHARACTERISTICS:  THE DISPLAY CLEARLY PRESENT THE KEY BEHAVIOURS  THE MODEL IS CREDIBLE TO THE TRAINEES  AN OVERVIEW OF THE KEY BEHAVIOURS IS PRESENTED
  • 15.  EACH KEY BEHAVIOUR IS REPEATED. THE TRAINEE IS SHOWN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE BEHAVIOUR OF THE MODEL & EACH KEY BEHAVIOUR  A REVIEW OF THE KEY BEHAVIOUR IS INCLUDED  MODELS ENGAGING IN BOTH POSITIVE USE OF KEY BEHAVIOUR & NEGATIVE MODELS ARE PRESENTED o PROVIDING OPPORTUNITIES FOR PRACTICE INVOLVES:  HAVING TRAINEES COGNITIVELY REHEARSE & THINK ABOUT KEY BEHAVIOURS  PLACING TRAINEES IN SITUATIONS WHERE THEY HAVE TO UE THE KEY BEHAVIOUR o PRACTICE SESSION SHOULD INCLUDE A METHOD FOR PROVIDING TRAINEES WITH FEEDBACK o BEHAVIOUR MODELLING HELP TO ENSURE THAT TRANSFER OF TRAINING OCCURS BY USING APPLICATION PLANNING. APPLICATION PLANNING INVOLVE PREPARING TRAINEES TO USE KEY BEHAVIOURS ON THE JOB. IT INVOLVES PROVIDING A WRITTEN DOCUMENT IDENTIFYING SPECIFIC SITUATION WHERE THEY SHOULD USE THE KEY BEHAVIOURS. AS A PART OF APPLICATION PLANNING PROCESS, A TRAINEE MAY BE PAIRED WITH ANOTHER PARTICIPANT WITH THE STATED EXPECTATION THAT THEY SHOULD PERIODICALLY COMMUNICATE WITH EACH OTHER TO DISCUSS SUCCESS & FAILURE OF THE KEY ISSUE OF BEHAVIOURS
  • 16. GROUP BUILDING METHODS  REFERS TO TRAINING METHODS DEIGNED TO IMPROVE TEAM OR GROUP EFFECTIVENESS  TRAINING IS DIRECTED AT IMPROVING THE TRAINEES’ SKILL AS WELL AS TEAM EFFECTIVENESS  GROUP BUILDING METHODS INVOLVE TRAINEE SHARING IDEAS & EXPERIENCES BUILDING GROUP IDENTITY, UNDERSTANDING THE DYNAMIC OF INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP, & GETTING TO KNOW THEIR OWN STRENGTHS & WEAKNESS & THOSE OF THEIR CO-WORKERS  GROUP TECHNIQUES FOCUS ON HELPING TEAMS INCREASE THEIR SKILLS FOR EFFECTIVE TEAMWORK  A NUMBER OF TRAINING TECHNIQUES ARE AVAILABLE TO IMPROVE WORK GROUP TEAM PERFORMANCE, TO ESTABLISH A NEW TEAM OR TO IMPROVE INTERACTIONS AMONG DIFFERENT TEAM  ALL INVOLVE EXAMINATION OF FEELING, PERCEPTIONS, & BELIEF ABOUT FUNCTIONING OF THE TEAM, DISCUSSION & DEVELOPMENT OF PLANS TO APPLY WHAT WAS LEARNED IN TRAINING TO THE TEAM’S PERFORMANCE IN THE WORK SETTING  GROUP BUILDING METHODS INCLUDE ADVENTURE LEARNING, TEAM TRAINING, & ACTION LEARNING ADVENTURE LEARNING  FOCUSES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF TEAMWORK & LEADERSHIP SKILLS USING STRUCTURED OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES.
  • 17.  BEST SUITED FOR DEVELOPING SKILLS SUCH AS: SELF- AWARENESS PROBLEM-SOLVING; CONFLICT MANAGEMENT & RISK TAKING  FOR ADVENTURE LEARNING PROGRAMS TO BE SUCCESSFUL, EXERCISES SHOULD BE RELATED TO THE TYPE OF SKILLS THAT PARTICIPANTS ARE EXPECTED TO DEVELOP  AFTER THE EXERCISE, A SKILLED FACILITATOR SHOULD LEAD A DISCUSSION ABOUT WHAT HAPPENED IN THE EXERCISE, WHAT WE LEARNED, HOW EVENTS IN THE EXERCISE RELATE TO THE JOB SITUATION, & HOW TO SET GOAL & APPLY WHAT WAS LEARNED ON THE JOB  BY ANALYSING BEHAVIOURS THAT OCCUR DURING THE EXERCISE TRAINEES GAIN INSIGHT INTO INEFFECTIVE BEHAVIOURS  EMPLOYEES GAIN A GREATER UNDERSTANDING OF THEMSELVES & HOW THEY INTERACT WITH CO-WORKERS TEAM TRAINING:  INVOLVES COORDINATING THE PERFORMANCE OF INDIVIDUALS WHO WORK TOGETHER TO ACHIEVE A COMMON GOAL  THERE ARE THREE COMPONENTS OF TEAM PERFORMANCE: o BEHAVIOUR o KNOWLEDGE o ATTITUDE  BEHAVIOURAL REQUIREMENT MEANS THAT TEAM MEMBERS MUST PERFORM ACTIONS THAT ALLOW THEM TO COMMUNICATE, COORDINATE, ADAPT, & COMPLETE COMPLEX TASKS TO ACCOMPLISH THEIR OBJECTIVES  THE KNOWLEDGE COMPONENT REQUIRES TEAM MEMBERS TO FUNCTION EFFECTIVELY IN UNANTICIPATED OR NEW SITUATIONS
  • 18.  TEAM MEMBERS BELIEFS ABOUT THE TASK & FEELING TOWARD EACH OTHER RELATE TO THE ATTITUDE COMPONENT ACTION LEARNING  INVOLVE GIVING TEAMS AN ACTUAL PROBLEM HAVING THEM WORK ON SOLVING IT & COMMITTING TO AN ACTION PLAN, & THE HOLDING THEM ACCOUNTABLE FOR CARRYING OUT THE PLAN ASSIGNMENTS: 1. WHAT ARE THE STRENGTHS & WEAKNESS OF THE LECTURE / CASE STUDY & BEHAVIOUR MODELLING? 2. IF YOU HAD TO CHOOSE BETWEEN ADVENTURE LEARNING & ACTION LEARNING FOR DEVELOPING AN EFFECTIVE TEAM, WHICH WOULD YOU CHOOSE? DEFEND YOUR CHOICE? 3. DISCUSS THE PROCESS OF BEHAVIOUR MODELLING TRAINING? 4. HOW CAN THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TRAINEE AFFECT SELF- DIRECTED LEARNING? 5. WHAT ARE THE COMPONENTS OF EFFECTIVE TRAINING PERFORMANCE? HOW MIGHT TRAINING STRENGTHEN THESE COMPONENTS? 6. WHAT ARE SOME REASONS WHY ON THE JOB TRAINING CAN BE INEFFECTIVE? WHAT CAN BE DONE TO ENSURE ITS EFFECTIVENESS?
  • 19. CHAPTER 8 USE OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN TRAINING INTRODUCTION:  TECHNOLOGY IS HAVING A MAJOR IMPACT ON THE DELIVERY OF TRAINING PROGRAMS  THEY ARE REPLACING OR SUBSTITUTING TRADITIONAL TRAINING METHODS HOW ARE NEW TECHNOLOGIES INFLUENCING TRAINING?  NEW TECHNOLOGIES [NT] ALLOW TRAINING TO BE DELIVERED ON A 24-HOUR BASIS TO GEOGRAPHICALLY DISPERSED EMPLOYEES. NT INFLUENCES TRAINING DELIVERY IN THE FOLLOWING WAY: o CUSTOMIZE TO LEARNER o APPEAL TO MULTIPLE SENSES o INCORPORATE LEARNING PRINCIPLES [FEEDBACK, REINFORCEMENT, MEANINGFULNESS]  NT IS ALSO BEING USED TO STREAMLINE TRAINING ADMINISTRATION. THESE TECHNOLOGIES INCLUDE IMAGING, INTERACTIVE RESPONSE SYSTEMS & SPECIALIZED TRAINING SOFTWARE. NT INFLUENCE TRAINING ADMINISTRATION IN THE FOLLOWING WAYS: o PAPERLESS RECORD KEEPING & ENROLMENT o MONITORING
  • 20.  THESE TECHNOLOGIES REDUCE TRAINING COSTS & MAKE IT EASIER TO ADMINISTER TRAINING PROGRAM  NT ALSO PROVIDES SUPPORT FOR TRAINING. NT INFLUENCES TRAINING IN THE FOLLOWING WAYS: o PROVIDE INFORMATION ON AS NEEDED BASIS o DEVELOP INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL  NT INCLUDES THE FOLLOWING: o MULTIMEDIA TRAINING o DISTANCE LEARNING o EXPERT SYSTEMS o SOFTWARE APPLICATION o ELECTRONIC PERFORMANCE o SUPPORT SYSTEM  MULTIMEDIA TRAINING INCLUDES o COMPUTER BASED TRAINING  IT IS INTERACTIVE  COMPUTER PROVIDE THE LEARNING STIMULUS, TRAINEE MUST RESPOND & THE COMPUTER ANALYSES THE RESPONSES & PROVIDES FEEDBACK TO THE TRAINEE o CD-ROM & LASER DISC  USING A PERSONAL COMPUTER, ANIMATION, VIDEO CLIPS, & THE GRAPHICS CAN BE INTEGRATED INTO TRAINING SESSION
  • 21.  THE USER CAN INTERACT WITH TRAINING MATERIAL THROUGH USING JOYSTICK OR TOUCH SCREEN MONITOR  CD-ROM UTILIZES A LASER TO READ TEXT, GRAPHIC, AUDIO & VIDEO OFF AN ALUMINIUM DISC. A LASER DISC USES A LASER TO PROVIDE HIGH QUALITY VIDEO & SOUND o INTERACTIVE VIDEO  COMBINES THE ADVANTAGES OF VIDEO & COMPUTER BASED INSTRUCTION  INSTRUCTION IS PROVIDED ONE-ON-ONE BASIS TO TRAINEES VIA MONITOR CONNECTED TO A KEYBOARD  TRAINEES USE THE KEYBOARD OR TOUCH THE MONITOR TO INTERACT WITH THE PROGRAM  THE TRAINING PROGRAM IS STORED ON A VIDEODISC OR COMPACT DISC o THE INTERNET OR WEB-BASED TRAINING  INTERNET-BASED TRAINING REFERS TO TRAINING THAT IS DELIVERED ON PUBLIC OR PRIVATE COMPUTER NETWORKS &DISPLAYED BY A WEB BROWSER  INTRANET-BASED TRAINING REFERS TO TRAINING DELIVERED USING THE COMPANY’S OWN COMPUTER NETWORK  THE TRAINING PROGRAMS ARE ACCESSIBLE ONLY TO COMPANY EMPLOYEES
  • 22.  WEB-BASED TRAINING SUPPORTS VIRTUAL REALITY, ANIMATION, INTERACTION, COMMU
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