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The Original Pronunciation of Sanskrit

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The Original Pronunciation of Sanskrit Devanagari – Transliteration – IPA-Symbols
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  The Original Pronunciation of Sanskrit DevanÀgarÁ – Transliteration – IPA-Symbols  a      À     i     Á    u     Â     Ã           Å      Æ         e     ai       o     au      k     kh     g     gh     Ç    c       ch       j     jh       È    Ê      Êh     Ë      Ëh     É      t     th      d     dh     n    p     ph     b     bh     m    y     r      l     v     Ì     Í     s    h    Ï     Î    Drafted by Maciej Zieba and Ulrich Stiehl under the auspices of Manfred Mayrhofer. Improvements by Jost Gippert, Madhav Deshpande, Sunder Hattangadi, John Smith and others. This chart is a compromise, since the srcinal  pronunciation of Sanskrit is not exactly known in every detail. – 06/09/2002/us. Notes: 1.     seems to have been pronounced srcinally as [  ] or as [  ], possibly never as [  ].Not even the pronunciation of this most often used letter   is exactly known!2.   The srcinal pronunciation of   is not known. It occurs only in the verb   (kÆp).3.     seems to have been pronounced as [   ] or as [   ], and likewise the liquid     seemsto have been pronounced as syllabic [  ] (notation: [   ]   + [   ]) or as syllabic [   ].4.   The pronunciation of the semi-vowel   seems to have been either [  ] or [  ].5.   Visarga  (  ): a)  Visarga seems to have been pronounced srcinally always as [  ]. b)  Nowadays however it is usually pronounced as [  ], followed by a repetition of the preceding – shortened – vowel, e.g.   [  ],  [    ], etc.6.   AnusvÀra  (   ): a)  At the end of words before words initialled with any consonant,it is a shortcut for   pronounced as [  ]. b)  Before all the plosives (k, c, Ê, t, p, etc.)it is a shortcut for the respective class nasal, e.g.   (saÎdhiÏ) =   (sandhiÏ)= [  ]. c)  Before sibilants (  ,   ,   ), semi-vowels (  ,   ,   ,   ) and  , it seems tohave nasalized its preceding vowel, e.g.  (saÎvat) as [  ]. Controversial!It should be stressed that nowadays  pronunciation of Sanskrit differs considerablyfrom the srcinal  pronunciation, being heavily influenced by the mother tongue of the speaker (Hindi, Marathi etc.). Example:   (taj jÈÀnam = that knowledge),which seems to have been pronounced srcinally as [     ], is nowadayspronounced as [   ] (Hindi) or [   ] (Marathi), irrespective of thesound assimilation caused by Sandhi rule (d + j = j + j, i.e. tad jÈÀnam = taj jÈÀnam). http://home.t-online.de/home/ulrich.stiehl/polfonts.htm  THE INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET (revised to 1993, updated 1996) CONSONANTS (PULMONIC)                      Front Central Back CloseClose-midOpen-midOpenWhere symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel.       BilabialLabiodentalDentalAlveolarPost   alveolarRetroflexPalatalVelarUvularPharyngealGlottalPlosive                  Nasal            Trill      Tap or Flap    Fricative                          Lateralfricative    Approximant        Lateralapproximant         Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant. Shaded areas denote articulations judged impossible.CONSONANTS (NON-PULMONIC)SUPRASEGMENTALSVOWELSOTHER SYMBOLSClicksVoiced implosivesEjectives  Bilabial   Bilabial ’ Examples:  Dental   Dental/alveolar   ’ Bilabial ! (Post)alveolar   Palatal   ’ Dental/alveolar  Palatoalveolar   Velar   ’ Velar  Alveolar lateral    Uvular   ’ Alveolar fricative    Primary stress   Secondary stress       Long   Half-long         Extra-short   Minor (foot) group  Major (intonation) group   Syllable break         Linking (absence of a break)  TONES AND WORD ACCENTS LEVELCONTOUR          Extrahigh    & or     Rising     High     Falling     Mid     Highrising     Low        Lowrising   Extralow      Rising-falling  Downstep   Global rise  Upstep   Global fall  DIACRITICS Diacritics may be placed above a symbol with a descender, e.g.      Voiceless      Breathy voiced        Dental              Voiced          Creaky voiced     Apical           Aspirated     Linguolabial             Laminal          More rounded   Labialized     Nasalized    Less rounded    Palatalized          Nasal release    Advanced   Velarized         Lateral release    Retracted     Pharyngealized         No audible release       Centralized    Velarized or pharyngealized      Mid-centralized    Raised    (    = voiced alveolar fricative)   Syllabic    Lowered   (    = voiced bilabial approximant)   Non-syllabic    Advanced Tongue Root    Rhoticity         Retracted Tongue Root           Voiceless labial-velar fricative    Alveolo-palatal fricatives    Voiced labial-velar approximant   Alveolar lateral flap    Voiced labial-palatal approximant  Í  Simultaneous    and   Voiceless epiglottal fricative       Voiced epiglottal fricativeAffricates and double articulationscan be represented by two symbols       Epiglottal plosive joined by a tie bar if necessary.      (                     (

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Jul 23, 2017
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