School Work

Theories of Personality

Reviewer for Preliminary Period Carl Jung Sigmund Freud Alfred Adler Karen Horney
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  INTRO  ________1. An unsubstantiated hypothesis or a speculation concerning a reality that is not yet definitely known to be so.  ________2. Power of theory to arouse curiosity which generates research by suggesting ideas or even by arousing disbelief and resistance  ________3. Refers to how applicable a theory is  ________4. The capacity of the theory to generate predictions that are confirmed when the relevant empirical data are collected.  ________5.   Refers to the scope or completeness of these derivations  ________6. He extracted almost 50 different definitions of personality  ________7. The individual is capable of all of the processes or activities such as his interests, abilities and habits, processes and activities we go through  ________8. Every individual has various characteristics that are related to one another, mind is connected to emotion and emotion is connected to behavior  ________. Personality is the sum total of the various aspects of the individual, we are more than our name, intelligence and grade  ________10. Distinctive way of facing the ups and downs of life.  ________11. The whole is more than the sum  ________12. No personality stays the same  ________13. Constant personality  ________14. The process of converting speculations about human nature into concepts that can be empirically studied, as opposed to relying on intuition, folklore, or common sense.  ________15. Seeks to establish better ways of understanding persons through the use of various research strategies.  ________16. Represents the basic building blocks of psychological life  ________17. Accounts for why people do the things they do  ________18. Focuses on a stage model that shows the patterns of growth and change in a person’s life   ________19. Refers to the criteria by which a “healthy personality”   ________20. Refers to the causes of maladaptive or pathological (uncontrolled) styles of behavior  ________21. Refers to ways of achieving positive changes in behavior FREUD  ________1. What is Freud known for?  ________2. Psychiatrist who influenced Freud in using hypnosis as treatment to hysteria  ________ 3. Who devised the “talk - out” treatment?   ________4. What is the release and freeing of emotion, repressed ideas or experiences through talking about one’s problems ?  ________5. What is the foundation of dynamics of psychological functioning that studies the transfer of heat in various physical & chemical processes?  ________6. Who is the physiologist that influenced him?  ________7. A fundamental principle that is based on homeostasis a.k.a sine qua non  ________8. A fundamental principle that states everything in life is manifested in 2 dissimilar qualities  ________9. A fundamental principle that states a man as a habit-following animal; the longer he does so the more fixed it becomes as his mode of behavior in daily life.  ________10. Refers to the more stable and enduring aspects of personality  ________11. It is the result when an emotion is blocked from expression inducing a certain symptom as an indirect expression.  ________12. A conflict between a drive or wish and the ego’s sense  ________13. Personality structure which represents basic needs, urges, impulses  ________13.1 It operates according to the principle of avoiding pain and gaining pleasure  ________13.2 It motivates people to focus on pleasure-seeking tendencies  ________13.3 It motivates people to use aggressive urges to destroy  ________14. Personality structure which represents values, norms, and morality  ________15. Personality structure that is executive and the decision-maker, rational part of it  ________15.1 Operates according to the principle of satisfying Id’s desire in a method that is both socially appropriate and realistic  ________16. Level of consciousness that is alogical, where dreams appear and is outside of awareness at all times  ________16.1 Notions of right/wrong  ________16.2 How we ideally like to be  ________17. Level of consciousness where memories are stored  ________18. Level of consciousness of a person’s current state of awareness   ________19. Stages of personality development that occurs in every child’s life   ________20. Being stuck in a stage  ________21. Part of the body that involve sexual pleasure  ________22. PSD where the EZ is the mouth  ________22.1 What are the gratifications in this stage?  ________22.3 What is the time period of this stage?  ________23. PSD where the time period is 1 ½ - 3 years of age  ________23.1 Where is the EZ of this stage?  ________23.2 What are children being trained for at this stage?  ________24. PSD where the EZ is the genitals is the source of pleasure, but not through having sex  ________24.1 What is the time period of this stage?  ________24.2 A boy is sexually attracted to his mother and wishes to replace his father.  ________24.3 A girl is sexually attracted to his father and wishes to replace his mother.  ________ 24.4 A boy’s fear that his father knows his desire for his mother and it will castrate him.  ________ 24.5 A girl’s shift of attachment occurs when she realizes she lacks a penis.  ________25. Stage where sociability develop  ________25.1 It is the school age  ________25.2 Time period of this stage?  ________25.3 Is is the last stage where adolescence begin puberty, share sex and intimacy  ________25.5 Time period of this stage  ________26. The conflict between id, ego and superego generates what?  ________27. Way of the ego to reduce anxiety  ________28. A DF that involves intentional forgetting unacceptable and anxiety-producing thoughs but not unconsciously done  ________29. Refusal to accept external realities because it is too threatening to enter awareness  ________30. Channel sexual energies by engaging in creative activities  ________31. The anger is redirected to someone and not the target  ________32. Supplying a logical reason as opposed to the real reason  ________32.1 Making the best of an undeniably bad situation  ________32.2 Making justifications out of a situation  ________33. Doing opposite of what you really are or feel, converting of unwanted or dangerous thoughts, feelings or impulses into their opposites. (eg: homo with muscles)  ________34. People overachieve in one area to compensate for failures in another  ________ 35. Can’t accept painful reality thus blame others  ________36. Acquiring/identifying negative qualities (eg: bullying)  ________37. Acquiring identifying positive qualities (eg: idolizing celebs)  ________38. The attempt to take back an unconscious behavior or thought that is unacceptable or hurtful ERIKSON  ________1. What is Erikson known for?  ________2. Where did he study?  ________3. What is the principal function of ego?  ________4. It is a complex inner state that includes a set individuality and uniqueness  ________5. Confusion and despair one feels when there is lack of a strong sense of identity  ________6. Development is through a predetermined unfolding of our personalities in 8 stages. Progress through each stage in part is determined by our success/lack of success in all the previous stages  ________7. What is personality for him in contrast to Freud  ________8. 1 st  four stages of development focus on what type of behavior  ________ 9. Last four stages of dev’t focus on what type of behavior  ________10. Stage where child learns to anticipate the parent  ________10.1 What age does it develop?  ________11. Who is the primary caregiver?  ________12. Lack of #10 will lead to what behaviors?  ________13. Stage where inner resiliency or the will power to take charge/control own life and be responsible for own choices/decisions  ________14. What age does it develop?  ________15. Wounded sense of autonomy will lead to?  ________16. Overuse of will manifest in?  ________17. Underuse of will demonstrates?  ________18. Stage of play-age, ask many “why”s   ________19. What age does it develop?   ________20. What are the 3 master skills of child in this stage?  ________21. Stage where feelings of self-worth and personal competence develop  ________22. What age does this develop?  ________23. Who have the most authority and influence over a child at this stage?  ________24. What are the 4 most important skills to be learned in this stage?  ________25. Stage that is characterized by communication frenzy, experimentation, distancing from parents, egocentric thinking  ________26. What age does it develop?  ________27. It is the capacity to commit oneself to concrete affiliations, partnerships and develop ethical strengths even if it may call for sacrifices and compromises  ________28. What stage does #27 develop at the age of Young adulthood to 20’s?   ________29. Stage developed at the age of late 20’s -50 or middle adulthood  ________30. Refers to the need to have something to care for and develop  ________31. Refers to sense to take the form of feeling of purposeless in life, midlife crisis  ________32. What stage does develop at the age of 50’s and beyond or old adulthood? FROMM  ________1. Erich Fromm is known for  ________1. Reason why he became obsessed by the question of how life is possible  ________2. Two psychologists that shaped his study  ________3. What did he learn from #2  ________4. What did he learn from #2.1  ________5. Freedom of choice; to do what you want in preparation for your death  ________6. The concept that people need to have power and connected and related to other human beings.  ________7. What are the 2 things personality is made of?  ________7.1 Basic constitutional stuff with one is born  ________7.2 Formed thru social influence and pressures  ________8. What affects personality?  ________9. What are the two types of 7.1?  ________9.1 It comes primarily out of man's innate biological make-up and valuable things from family  ________9.2 Molded by society  ________10. He named a perfect society as  ________11. After the bonds of security had been severed, human beings had to find means to overcome the feelings of powerlessness and aloneness.  ________12. People surrender their independence and acquire strength by integrating themselves with a higher order.  ________12.1 To get rid of the individual self, to lose oneself... to get rid of the burden of freedom.  ________12.2 The 'strong ' one is dependent on the 'weaker' one. It needs the person over whom he rules; since his own feeling is rooted in the fact that he is the master over some one.  ________13. Tends to remove the objects that contribute to the individual's hopelessness and to which he often compares himself. To overcome feelings of inferiority  ________14. the individual ceases to be himself; he adopts entirely the kind of personality offered to him by cultural patterns; and he therefore becomes exactly as all others are and as they expect him to be. The discrepancy between 'I' and the world disappears and with it the conscious fear of aloneness and powerlessness.  ________15. He can relate himself spontaneously to the world, in the genuine expression of his emotional, sensuous, and intellectual capacities.  ________16. Two key components to develop #15.  ________17. The need to feel that they belong and that there is a sense stability and permanency.  ________18. The need to have an awareness of who and what they truly are; to see themselves as being control of their lives.  ________19. The need to surpass the passive animal nature of existence; to be active and creative shaper of own life.  ________20. The need to care for. Share with and be responsible for others to overcome feelings of isolation.  ________21. The need of a stable and consistent way of interpreting complexities; set of beliefs that provide sense of direction in search of purposeful existence.  ________22. SCT that are overly dependent and passive, incapable of doing anything without outside help. Peasants and slaves.   ________23. SCT who take whatever they need or desire. Aristocrats and upperclassmen.  ________24. SCT who strive to accumulate material possessions, power and love, and they struggle to avoid sharing any of their hoards.  ________25. SCT who value self only as a commodity to be sold or exchanged for success. I am as you desire me.  ________26. Fromm's view of the ultimate goal in human development.  ________27. Attracted to death.  ________28. In love with life.  ________29. Concerned with possessing and consuming resources.  ________30. Focuses on what one is, not what one has; sharing rather than competition. ADLER  ________1. Alfred Adler is known for  ________2. For Adler, individual means  ________3. The personal belief or something we hold on that develops out of our life plans.  ________4. The innate ability to engage in cooperative reciprocal social relations.  ________5. What did he focus on, opposed to Freud  ________6. One method of coping with feelings of inferiority. 7. A feeling that is never outgrown, no matter how long one's life may be.  ________8. Viewed as a fundamental fact and force in human nature. Striving for one's personal best, not to feel superior over others.  ________9. The basic orientation to life, the guideline of our action. Guiding image/life plan.  ________10. Based on an innate disposition that has to be nurtured to survive  ________11. A.k.a community feeling or relate to others and to the larger socio-cultural context to be able to understand ourselves fully  ________12. #10 can only be attained through 3 basic tasks  ________13. Empowered to create own lifestyle. Solely responsible for life goal and contribute to the development of social interest.  ________14. A major determinant of lifestyle attitudes.  ________15. Gives drive to keep on dreaming. Goal doesn’t  exist in future but in our present perception of the future.  ________16. A dominating attitude toward the outside world. Confront major tasks in hostile and antisocial manner. Drug addicts and juvenile delinquents  ________17. Leaning on others to satisfy most of their needs. Parasitic manner.  ________18. Running away from tasks of life, avoiding any possibility of failure.  ________19. Adler's epitome of maturity. Express genuine concern with other people. JUNG   ________1. Carl Jung is known for  ________2. What is the goal of human life  ________3. What is libido  ________4. The total personality  ________5. The center of the whole personality  ________6. Part of # 4 concerned with perceiving, thinking, feeling and remembering  ________7. The reservoir of materials that was once conscious but has been repressed.  ________8. A core or pattern of feelings, thoughts, perceptions and memories organized around a common theme.  ________9. Constellations of various experiences attracting like a magnet.  ________10. Deepest level of #4. Accumulation of inherited experiences of human and prehuman species. Residue of human evolutionary develpment  ________11. #10 is a.k.a  ________12. A universal thought form that contains large elements of emotion. Organizing principle on the things we see and do. Permanent deposit in the mind.  ________13. Our public image. Mask adopted by the person in response to the demand of social convention.  ________14. Ultimate unity of personality. Symbolized by what (3)  ________15. Dark side of ego. Amoral. Symbolized by what (4)  ________16. Feminine qualities present in all men  ________17. Masculine qualities present in all women  ________18. Strongest archetype. Built-in ability to recognize certain relationship  ________19. Guide or authority figure  ________20. Represents our need to comprehend the universe and give meaning to all that happens  ________21. Orients person toward external; objective world  ________22. Orients person toward inner; subjective world  ________23. Helps ego find a way around the obstacle and move
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