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1. b) Explanations of criminal thinking Rational Choice Theory <ul><li>Cornish & Clarke </li></ul><ul><li>RCT - Derived from…
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  • 1. b) Explanations of criminal thinking Rational Choice Theory <ul><li>Cornish & Clarke </li></ul><ul><li>RCT - Derived from economic theory </li></ul><ul><li>Says criminals not pathological </li></ul><ul><li>Rational economic decision to offend </li></ul><ul><li>Costs (effort / penalty) balanced against </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits (stuff!) </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence? </li></ul>costs benefits
  • 2. b) Explanations of criminal thinking moral development - Kohlberg <ul><li>Kohlberg ‘ages and stages’ </li></ul><ul><li>After Piaget </li></ul><ul><li>Used ‘dilemmas’ </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of boys: UK, US, Turkey, Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>6 steps in 3 stages </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-Conventional </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional </li></ul><ul><li>Post-Conventional </li></ul>Pre-Conventional Conventional Post-Conventional
  • 3. b) Explanations of criminal thinking moral development - UK <ul><li>Palmer & Holin – ages and stages UK </li></ul><ul><li>Ps 322 non-offenders </li></ul><ul><li>126 male offenders </li></ul><ul><li>13 – 21 yo </li></ul><ul><li>Self-reports </li></ul><ul><li>Most offenders ‘pre-conventional’ </li></ul><ul><li>Controls ‘Conventional’ </li></ul>pre-conventional pre-conventional pre-conventional conventional
  • 4. b) Explanations of criminal thinking cognitive – locus of control <ul><li>Rotter </li></ul><ul><li>external locus of control </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. daft bloke in pub </li></ul><ul><li>accidentally knocks beer </li></ul><ul><li>ELoC man hits daft bloke </li></ul><ul><li>ELoC says “it’s his fault he got hit; he knocked over my beer!” </li></ul>
  • 5. b) Explanations of criminal thinking psychodynamic – super-ego <ul><li>Freud </li></ul><ul><li>Psychodynamic approach </li></ul><ul><li>More than just Hans! </li></ul><ul><li>Super-ego = internal cop </li></ul><ul><li>Internalised father (resolving Oedipus complex) </li></ul>Id Superego Ego Conscious mind Unconscious mind
  • 6. b) Explanations of criminal thinking <ul><li>Issues: </li></ul><ul><li>Determinism </li></ul><ul><li>Perspectives – cognitive v Freud </li></ul><ul><li>Perspectives – cognitive v social </li></ul>
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