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1. VALIDITY IS THE RESEARCH MEASURING WHAT IT AIMED TO MEASURE? 2. <ul><li>Orne & Holland (1968) criticise Milgram’s study for lack of :…
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  • 1. VALIDITY IS THE RESEARCH MEASURING WHAT IT AIMED TO MEASURE?
  • 2. <ul><li>Orne & Holland (1968) criticise Milgram’s study for lack of : </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental (Internal) Validity </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological (External) Validity </li></ul><ul><li>EXPERIMENTAL (INTERNAL) VALIDITY … </li></ul><ul><li>… is a measure of whether experimental procedures actually work and the results are genuine! </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The controls (did anything else affect PPs?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The measurements (accurate & meaningful?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The demand characteristics (could PPs work out the aims & change their behaviour?) </li></ul></ul>
  • 3. <ul><li>2. Ecological (External) Validity… </li></ul><ul><li>… The extent to which the study’s results can be generalised beyond the research situation </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The setting (was it realistic?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The sample (was it representative? What about females, or the elderly?) </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. LOW v HIGH VALIDITY GAME
  • 5. EXPERIMENTAL (INTERNAL) VALIDITY <ul><li>Milgram argued that the distress shown by the PPs taking part was due to feeling they had to follow the demands of an authority figure and to be obedient. </li></ul>HIGH VALIDITY!
  • 6. <ul><li>The study was repeated many times using the same procedure! </li></ul>HIGH VALIDITY!
  • 7. <ul><li>Participants may have only shocked the learner as they were paid to take part and were bound to a contract. They were not being obedient </li></ul>LOW INTERNAL VALIDITY!
  • 8. <ul><li>Orne and Holland Argue that the participants don’t believe the experiment is real, they don’t think they are really hurting the learner </li></ul>LOW INTERNAL VALIDITY!
  • 9. <ul><li>Milgram asked participants after the study (using a questionnaire) if they thought it was fake, they all responded that they thought it was real. </li></ul>HIGH INTERNAL VALIDITY!
  • 10. Ecological (external) validity <ul><li>Research conducted in other countries found varying levels of obedience: Holland, Germany and Austria were higher than Britain and Australia (however procedure may have varied so comparison difficult) </li></ul>LOW ECOLOGICAL VALIDITY!
  • 11. <ul><li>Rank and Jacobson carried out an obedience study on nurses on a known drug and they were not obedient which questions Milgram’s findings </li></ul>LOW ECOLOGICAL VALIDITY
  • 12. <ul><li>Hoffling repeated the study in a real life setting in a hospital and got similar results showing obedience is high in real life also </li></ul>HIGH ECOLOGICAL VALIDITY!
  • 13. <ul><li>When Milgram repeated his study in run down offices the obedience rate was lower suggesting the setting affected obedience </li></ul>LOW ECOLOGICAL VALIDITY!
  • 14. <ul><li>When study was conducted with females, similar results were shown! </li></ul>HIGH ECOLOGICAL VALIDITY!
  • 15. WHY DO OEDIENCE LEVELS VARY IN THE STUDIES LOOKED AT SO FAR….?
  • 16. Create your own way of explaining the following reasons for obedience.. <ul><li>Legitimate authority </li></ul><ul><li>Gradual commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Contractual Obligation </li></ul><ul><li>Altering meaning of situation </li></ul><ul><li>The genetic shift </li></ul><ul><li>Buffer </li></ul><ul><li>Personality Factors </li></ul>
  • 17. Independent behaviour <ul><li>‘ Going against the pressure to conform or obey so that behaviour is not altered.’ </li></ul>Why do you think this might occur?
  • Poets and Pancakes

    Jul 23, 2017

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    Jul 23, 2017
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