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  • 2. WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW <ul><li>Ethics of research with animals (make sure you refer to them as non-human animals) </li></ul><ul><li>Pain/Discomfort experienced by species </li></ul><ul><li>Numbers, caging </li></ul><ul><li>Deprivation of food </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate social environment </li></ul><ul><li>Supplies and wild animals </li></ul><ul><li>You need to know at least TWO studies in detail that raise a lot of ethical issues e.g Harlow </li></ul>
  • 3. Why are animals used? <ul><li>Driscoll & Bateson (1988) identified the following reasons </li></ul><ul><li>To understand natural principles e.g learning </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures such as isolation just cannot be carried out on humans </li></ul><ul><li>Animals are good example of some phenomena e.g bird communcation </li></ul><ul><li>Animals interesting in own right e.g whale song, bat sonar </li></ul>
  • 4. Animal Scientific Procedures Act (1986) <ul><li>This has replaced the 1876 Cruelty to Animals act. </li></ul><ul><li>Act which requires a project licence issued by the Home Office covering: </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures: degree of animal suffering is weighed up against certainty of medical benefit </li></ul><ul><li>Animals: breeding, supply, treatment monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Premises: Checked by inspectors (HMI) </li></ul>
  • 5. How are these decisions made? <ul><li>Bateson’s decision cube (see handout) </li></ul><ul><li>Argued that when there is a conflict of interest between experimenters and their critics, this might be resolved by weighing up the degree of suffering for the animal subjects against the value of research. </li></ul><ul><li>When a proposal falls into an opaque area of the cube, the experiment should not be conducted, those falling into the clear space can be proceeded with. </li></ul>
  • 6. BPS Guidelines for Use of Animals in Research <ul><li>Aim is to assist in the planning of research in order to minimise discomfort caused to living animals. In addition working with the law, they expect researchers to seek veterinary advice when unsure and to consider the following points…… </li></ul>
  • 7. <ul><li>Ethics and aversive procedures: minimise suffering if stressed/pain, do the means justify the end and have other options been considered </li></ul><ul><li>Species: are the chosen animals the ones least likely to suffer pain/distress </li></ul><ul><li>Lab studies: will minimum no. of animals produce valid results. Is the environment, food/water appropriate for the animal </li></ul><ul><li>Wild animals: is the aim conservation, is disturbance when observing or tracking minimised </li></ul>
  • 8. <ul><li>Suppliers: are all animals from reputable suppliers and transported ethically </li></ul><ul><li>Anaesthesia and Euthanasia: are animals protected from pain and killed if suffering enduring pain </li></ul>
  • 9. Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour (ASAB) <ul><li>Played a pivotal role in the ethical treatment, their guidelines provide greater detail than BPS, adding in the following issues: </li></ul><ul><li>Choice of Species </li></ul><ul><li>Aversive Stimuli and deprivation </li></ul><ul><li>Social deprivation, isolation and crowding </li></ul><ul><li>Housing and animal care </li></ul><ul><li>Final disposition of animals </li></ul>
  • 10. Speciesism <ul><li>Human participants in experiments must have their rights and feelings protected by requiring experimenters to follow strict ethical guidelines. </li></ul><ul><li>However, a key issue is whether: </li></ul><ul><li>Non-human participants deserve (as far as possible) to be as fully protected as humans by ethical guidelines (Gray) </li></ul><ul><li>speciesism , is “discrimination and exploitation based upon a difference in species” (Ryder, </li></ul><ul><li>1990). </li></ul>
  • 11. How are animals studied using Psychological Research? <ul><li>Learning Studies (Skinner) </li></ul><ul><li>Deprivation Studies (Harlow) </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep Deprivation (Rechstaffen, Jouvet) </li></ul><ul><li>Lesioning studies and surgery (Morgan’s mutant hamsters) </li></ul>
  • 12. Argument for animals <ul><li>Nervous systems is simpler so they provide ideal models for testing hypotheses about behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Non-human animals can be used for procdeures such as isolation and surgery that would be unethical on humans </li></ul>
  • 13. Arguments against animals <ul><li>Similarities may be insufficient to justify generalisation form non human to humans </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures that are deemed to be unethical for humans may cause similar but undetectable suffering in animals </li></ul><ul><li>Animals cannot readily communicate their responses, they can only be observed. This may be less informative, biased and excludes access to thoughts and emotions </li></ul>
  • 14. Over to you! <ul><li>Find Examples of ethically sound/poor practice from studies you know e.g Harlow, Skinner, Rechstaffen et al. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Draw a table to illustrate what way they are ethically sound/poor </li></ul><ul><li>2. Discuss ethical issues involved in the use of animals in the either the physiological or the learning approach (+/-) </li></ul>
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