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1. Attributional Biases There effects on witness recall. 2. What is attribution? <ul><li>An attribution is how people decide the causes of a behaviour.…
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  • 1. Attributional Biases There effects on witness recall.
  • 2. What is attribution? <ul><li>An attribution is how people decide the causes of a behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>It could be dispositional, due to the person’s personality. </li></ul><ul><li>It could be situational due to outside environmental factors. </li></ul>
  • 3. Fundamental attributional error. <ul><li>This is when people overestimate the role of personal factors and underestimate the role of environmental factors. </li></ul><ul><li>The accused is more likely to be held responsible for the crime, the jury will ignore the situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Can cause witnesses to distort their memories of a crime. </li></ul>
  • 4. Studies to support the FAE. <ul><li>Jones & Harris (1967) </li></ul><ul><li>Glaser et al (2001) </li></ul>
  • 5. Actor-observer effect. <ul><li>If we are the person doing the behaviour we are more likely to emphasise external factors. </li></ul><ul><li>If we are the observer of a behaviour we are more likely to emphasise the internal qualities of the person. </li></ul>
  • 6. Studies to support the actor-observer effect. <ul><li>Harre et al </li></ul><ul><li>Kemdal et al </li></ul><ul><li>Nisbett. </li></ul>
  • 7. Self serving bias <ul><li>We give attributions that make us look good. </li></ul><ul><li>If behaviour is negative blame the situation. </li></ul><ul><li>If behaviour is positive focus on our internal factors. </li></ul>
  • 8. Studies to support self serving bias. <ul><li>Farmer & Pecorino </li></ul><ul><li>Arkin et al </li></ul><ul><li>A study </li></ul>
  • 9. Hedonistic Relevance. <ul><li>The more directly behaviour affects us the more likely we are to attribute responsibility to that person. </li></ul><ul><li>This happens if the behaviour has pleasant or unpleasant consequences for us. </li></ul><ul><li>Victims are more likely to see the behaviour against them as a deliberate act. They are more likely to infer intention if negatively affected. </li></ul><ul><li>If we aren’t affected by the crime we will look more at the situation. </li></ul>
  • 10. Studies that support hedonistic relevance. <ul><li>DeRidder et al (1999) </li></ul>
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