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UNIT1: MARKET CAPITALISM I.comprehension questions 1.what are the two major decision-making units which market capitalism contains? They are business firms and househods. 2.how are the actions of business firms and households coordinated? They are !oordina ed hrou#h mar$e e%!han#e. 3.from whom does the business firm buy resources and sell outputs? &ousehods. 4.what does the demand for resource inputs depend on? I de'ends on he demand for fina 'rodu!$. 5
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    UNIT1: MARKET CAPITALISM  I.comprehension questions 1. what are the two major decision-making units which market capitalism contains? They are business firms and househods. 2.how are the actions of business firms and households coordinated? They are !oordina ed hrou#h mar$e e%!han#e. 3.from whom does the business firm buy resources and sell outputs? &ousehods. 4.what does the demand for resource inputs depend on? I de'ends on he demand for fina 'rodu!$. 5. what do firms do with the resource they buy from households? They ransform resour!es in'u s in o bu 'u s of 'rodu! s and ser(i!es hen se o househods. 6. how can consumers get money to buy products sold by firms? Consumers ob ain in!ome)money hrou#h he sae on oan of heir resour!es o firms. .what do both households and business firms do through market e!change? They bo h desire o ma%imi*e heir e!onomi! +e bein#. Unit 2: .what is a market? ,- I is an arran#emen by +hi!h seers and buyers of a !ommodi y in era! o de ermine i s 'ri!e and uan i y. 2# $hat are wage rates? ,- +a#er es are 'ri!es of differen $inds of humman abor. 3# what will happen if the demand for a gi%en good rises? ,- he seers +i raise he ' i!e o ra ion ou a imi ed su''y and hi#her 'ri!e +i en!ura#e #rea er 'rodu! ion. 4# $hat will seller do if their products become o%erstocked at the going market price? ,- he seers +i o+er 'ri!es o unoad un+an ed modes. 5# how can an &uilibrium between buyer and sellers and sellers be restored when a good becomes o%erstocked at the going market price? ,- +hen a #oods be!omes o(ers o!$ed he seer +i o+er i s 'ri!e.A he o+er/ !onsumers +i +an o buy moer/ and 'rodu!ers +i +an o 'rodu!e fe+er. As aresu / he uiibrium +i b res ore. 6# $hat is a factor of production? ,- I is an inu in o he 'rodu! i(e 'ro!ers # 'ame three factor of production? ,- Land/ abor and !a'i a. (')* 3+,/010'0,) .  I.comprchension question . what is the importance of macroeconomics? Ma!roe!onomi! 'erforman!e is a !en ra fa! or affe! in# he su!!ess or faiure of na ions. 2 what does macroeconomics study? Ma!roe!onomi! s udies o(era e!onomi! rends su!h as em'oymen e(es/ e!onomi! #ro+ h/ and infa ion. 3. the article discusser countries at 2 opposite e!tremes# what are they? They are he !oun ries +hi!h ha #ro+ ra'idy +i hou ma0or imbaames and he one ha s a#na e and seem s u!$ in a si ua ion of hi#h infa ion and hi#h rade defi!i s. 4.what does fical policy deal with? I deas +i h #o(ernmen s'endin# and a%in#. 5. how can go%ernment ha%e a majoy impact on a countrys economic performance? o(ernmen ha(e ma0oy im'a! on a !oun ry2s e!onomi! 'erforman!e hrou#h i s e!onomi! 'i!ies fis!aand mone ary 'oi!ies. 6. what are four main areas that macroeconomics focuses on? They are NP/ em'oymen / infa ion and baan!e of 'aymen . .what are four tools of macroeconomic policy? They are fis!a 'oi!y/ mone ary 'oi!y/ in !ome 'oi!y and forei#n e!onomi! 'oi!y. . what do modern economists know more about than in the past? Modern e!onomi!s s $no+ more abou $no+ 'ui! 'oi!ies offe! he e!onomy. (nist5+ # $hat are coal and timber ewamples of? ,- They are e%am'es of ra+ ma eriar. 2# $hat happens to goods not consumed in he country? ,- I !an besod o o her !ou ries as e%'or . 3# how is the sie of a countrys economy determined? ,- he si*e of a !oun ry2s e!onomy is de ermined by he o a amoun of #oods and ser(i!es ha i 'rodu!es. 4# $hat it the best way to measure economy growth? ,- he bes +ay is o 'u a mone ary (aue on e(ery hin# bou#h or sod. 5# what is 78? ,- 3P is he measures of e!onomy a! i(i y ha in!udes a he #oods and ser(ies ha i 'rodu!es. 6# $hat happens in a healthy economy? A hea hy e!onomy of so+s s eadiy o(er a rea i(ey on# 'eriod ime. # $hat is a recession? ,- are!ers ion is a hea h e!onomy 4.. # 9ow is '8 different from 78? ,- 3P !on!en ra es !o(erin# he e!onomi! a! i(i y +hi!h a$es 'a!e +i hin he !oun ry2s borders/ +hie NP in!udes ne in erna iona rade.  Exercise : rewrite the following s   entences using an appropriate relative pronoun and clause. .coffee is one of our big e!porters.foreigners lo%e our coffee a lot.-:coffee +hi!h forei#ners o(e a o is one of our bi# e%'or ers. 2.tom is the youngest director of the company.toms father was also a director.-: tom is he youn#es dire! or of he !om'any +hose fa her is aso a dire! or. 3.journalists talk much about this company. )ts rubbish badly pollutes the en%ironment.-: journalists talk much about this company +hose rubbish bady 'ou es he en(ironmen . 4. engineers are needed here . they will be paid well.-:engineers +ho are needed here +i be 'aid +e. 5. workers ask for higher wages. *hey work %ery hard.-: workers are ha +or$ (ery hard as$ for hi#her +a#es.5.  goods are o%erstocked. ellers ha%e to lower their price.-: goods  +hose 'ri!e are o(ers o!$ed seers ha(e o o+er. . the firms ha%e a loan to buy new machinery. *hey ha%e to pay it back soon.-:the firms +hi!h ha(e a oan o buy ne+ ma!hinery ha(e o 'ayi ba!$ soon. . japan is a de%eloped country. )t has a big automobiles industry.-: japan +hi!h is a de(eo'ed !oun ry has a bi# au omobies indus ry. ;.the a%erage wage in <ietnam is %ery low. *he go%ernmant is trying to raise it up.-: the a%erage wage in <ietnam +hi!h he #o(ermen is ryin# o raise i u' is (ery o+. =. customers ha%e to pay high.they will ne%er come back to buy goods here.-: customers +ho ha(e o 'ay hi#h +i ne(er !ome ba!$ o buy #oods here. .i saw the man .he told me to come back today.-:the man +ho I sod me o !ome ba!$ o day. 2.these workers decided to &uit jobs. *hey are not well-paid. 6- hese +or$ers +ho are no +e 'aid de!ided o ui 0obs. 3. you can keep money in backs. )t is safer than buying gold today.-: you can $ee' he money in ba!$s +hi!h is sayer han buyin# #od o day. /1$/)*1 *91 >00$)' 1'*1'1+ 1. the man who is standing  there is my teacher.2.the window which was   broken in the storm last night has now been repaired.3.the workers who work   in this workshop are skilled workers.4. economics students who are  studying hard for their e!ams will do well.5. some paintings which were stolen from the museum ha%ent been fourd yet.6. a lot of the people who were in%ited to the party can not come.. the factory which makes  bicycles has no profit in 3 years.. the student taking  part in the tour to paris last week were my students.;.the story written by paul appeared in the magaine. =. ,ost of the goods made in this factory are e!ported. . rice grown in many countries is a stable food throughout the world. 2.the cat walking on the wall is mine. 3. we are studying sentences contaniny adjecti%e clauses. 4. the painting drawn by john was sold last week.  REWRITE TE!E !E TE #E! U!I $ %&U 'E!!&&. .you cant tra%el abroad unless   you dont ha%e a passport.2. ) will tell him the truth unless you are at least  years old.3. you cant get a dri%ers license unless you are at least  years old.4.unless she doent studies hard# she will pass the e!am.5. unless ) dont get a raise in salary ) will work hard.6. ) will become %ery fat unless ) stop eating so much cake.. we wont go on a e!cursion unless the weather is bad tomorrow.. you will get hungry during the class unless you eatbreakfast. #( $E TE )*''*WI $ !E TE #E!  I T* +(!!I,E ,*I#E. .most economists define a nations wealth as what a citien of its owns. a na ion2s +ea h is defined as +ha a !i i*en of i s o+ns by mos e!onomis s. 2.the go%ernment of china bought , # the biggest motor company of the (. M he bi##es mo or !om'any of he USA/ +as bou#h by he #o(ernmen of !hina. 3.they in %ested most of their money in stock. Mos of heir money +as in(es ed in s o!$. 4. %iet nam usually e!ports rice to countries in frica. Ri!e is e%'or s by (ie nam o !oun ries in Afri!a. 5.in%estors hope that the price of gold will rise sharply. I is ho'e ha he 'ri!e of #od +i rise shar'y by in(es ors. 6. people consider that countries in central merica are ta! ha%ens because they re&uire little or no ta! from the foreign in%estors who come there to set up oprations. Coun ries in !en ra Ameri!a are !onsider o be a% ha(ens be!ause hey reuire i e or no a% from he forei#n in(es ors +ho !ome here o se u' o'ra ions .  REWRITE TE )*''*WI $ !E TE #E! WIT*UT #( $I $ TE  -E( I $!. .the current account gi%es a comprehensi%e picture of international trade. A !om'rehensi(e 'i! ure of in erna iona rade is #i(es by he !urren a!!oun . 2.when a product is sold for money# this money can then be used to buy another product or to. 7hen +e se a 'rodu! for money +e hen !an use his money o buy ano her 'rodu! or o in(es . 3.how &uickly the economy can grow is determined by each countrys money supply. ea!h !oun ry2s money su''y de ermined ho+ ui!$y he e!onomy !an #ro+. 4.money makes trade more manageable. Trade is ma$e more mana#eabe by money. 5.social security was set up to reduce po%erty among the elderly and disabled by the go%ernment. he #o(ernmen se u' so!ia se!uri y o redu!e 'o(er y amon# he edery and disabed. 6.china is said not to be able to come the greatest economy in the world by the economists because of its une&ual de%elopment between the city and the country. he e!onomis s say ha !hina no o be!ause of i s uneua de(eo'men be +een he !i y and he !oun ry .. we calculate the %alua of one currency in terms of another. he (aua of one !urren!y is !a!ua ed in erms of ano her. .the boss must sign the che&ue soon. The !heue mus be si#ned by he boss soon be. ,*#(U'(R/ E0ER#I!E 1. here are some public  'ro#rams o he' 'oor 'eo'e/ bu N8s 9non6#o(ernmen a or#ani*a ions are aso im'or an .;. he mus s o' his e!eessi%e  s'endin# or ese he +i no ha(e enou#h money o feed himsef.<. if you s udy (ery hard for a (ery on# ime e%entually  you +i be abe o s'ea$ En#ish +e.=. many 'eo'e ry o a(oid ta!ation  be!ause hey +an o $ee' heir money for hemse(es ins ead of #i(in# i o he #o(ernmen .>. his mo her has (ery restricti%e  rues/ he mus be a home before ?'.m and he !an2 brin# his #irfriend home.5. he !om'any +i implement   heir 'an af er hey ha(e enou#h money o do i .@. he doar is a (ery stable !urren!y sin!e i s (aue ony !han#e (ery i e durin# year.?. he hi#h a% on !i#are es induced  him o ui smo$in#.. she has many assets  in!udin# a !ar/ a house/ and a ee(ision.1B. he allocation  of o''or uni ies o s udy a his uni(ersi y shoud be based on s uden +ho has he hi#hes abii y/ no +ho has he mos money.11. he !om'ny finance  i 2s ne+ ma!hinery +i h a oan from he ban$.1;. realestale  in!udes and and a he buidin#s on i .1<. he balance   of plement is a re!ord of 'aymen s o o her !oun ries and re!ei' s from o her !oun ries.1=. hey are implement (ery diffi!u 'ro0e! ha he' o in!rease in!omes in rura areas.1>. my househod budget  in!udes s'endin# on housin# / food/ ee'hone/ee! ri!i y and !o hes.15.in (ie nam +e measure  dis an!e in $iome ers in Ameri!a +e use mies.1@. net  'rofi is he 'rofi ha remains af er 'ayin# a he e%'enses and a%es.1?. here are se(era ar#e automobiles !om'anies in 0a'an in!udin# Toyo a/&onda and Nissan.1. hey bou#h hea h insurance  so if hey are si!$ and mus #o o he hos'i a hey +on2 ha(e o use heir o+n money o 'ay he !os s.;B. ie nam shoud de(eo' i s foodstuffs indus ry sin!e mos of he 'eo'e in ie nam farmers.;1.if you e%'r row materials  you +i earn ess money han if you ma$e hem in o a fina 'rodu! o e%'or .;;. forei#n in %estment  in o!a rea es a e and o!a !om'anies !an aso 'ro(ide needed 0obs for o!a 'eo'e.;<. ha !om'any measuare  i s +or$ers2 'rodu! i(i y no ony by he number of shoes hey 'rodu!e bu aso by he uai y of ha shoes.;=.+ord e!onomy sar ed o #e in o recession a he end of he yeaf of ;BB@.III. <ocabulary 1!ercis Units 1: #  &e fied ou ea!h of he 'a#errs  in turn. ;/ 7e mus !onsider he e!onomi! well eing of 'oor 'eo'e +hen +e ma$e his 'oi!y.    </ The boss i he oy 'erson +i h decision ma3ing  Po+er in his !om'any no one ese !an ma$e.=/ E!onomis s ma$e many assume +hen hey +ir e heir heories.>/ I is (ery difi!u o coordinate he s!hedues of a he s uden s and a he ea!hers in he uni(ersi y.5/ Sa is no to trans form  Dor su#ar e(en hou#h hey oo$ he same.@/ The husband and +ife are interdpendnt   &e !an2 i(e +i hou her and she !an2 i(e +i hou him.?/ The !om'any +an s o  purchase Inde%'ensi(e #oods in ie Nam o send o Ameri!a and sod in a hi#h 'rofi ./ Tha !om'any2s hi#h 'rofis are derived Drom he sae of shoes made in (ie nam and sod in an'an.1B/ The !hanes in #o(ernmen 'oi!y shoud transform  The ie namese e!onomy from he mar%is e!onomy in o a mar$e e!onomy.11/ They !an $ee' he money for a  given   ime 'eriod/ for e%em'e/ one year/ one year/ bu hen hey mus 'ay i ba!$.1;/ Many Ameri!a siness fim  7oud you i$e i in(es in ie Nam.1<. Many ie namese house holds  &a(e more han +o !hidren.1=/ The !om'any ha(e a loan for >BBF o buy ne+ ma!hines/ bu hey mus 'ay i ba!$ soon.1>. If +an o  pursue  a !areer in business/ you mus unders and he e!onomy) Unist241   ,  The +or$ers to rush . o(er ea!h o her o #e ou of he burnin# fa! ory.;/ 7i h infa ion/ 'ri!es tend to  rise (ery ui!$y.</ she s'ea$s En#ish/ Den!h and erman in addtion   o ie namese.=/ A ou s ore ie namese bi!y!es are over  stoc3  Nobody +i +an o buy hem a oday2s 'rin!e so hey 0us s ay in he s ore.>/Condi ions are (ery favorale  for findin# 0obs in a #ro+in# e!onomy.5/ 3urin# he +ar/ he #o(ernmen ration out mea and o her foods.@/ Ea!h  participant   In he semnar had #o #i(e a shor s'ee!h.?/ Af er hey unload    he #oods from he shif you !an a$e hem o your s ore./ The ne+ arrangement   In he mana#in# ma!hine of he !om'any ma$es i +or$ more eff!ien y.1B/ A o of ie names 'eo'e ruch To sho's +hen hey hear of he sho'2s sae off. They no e(en !are abou he uai y of he #oods.11/ The re!en  shift   in he e+!han#e ra e made im'or #ood !hea'er.1;/ The triad   8f and/ abor and !a'i a are !aed fa! ors of 'rodu! ion.1</ Af er he +ar i is diffi!u o restore An e!onomy o i s 're(ious s a e be!ause of dama#e from bobs.1=/ he  process  8f ma$in# ban$no es is (ery sim'e/ bu i reuires s'e!ia in'u s ha ordinary 'eo'e are no ao+ed o buy.1>. The ne+ series of !ars ha(e mis a$es in he hand bra$e/ so 'eo'e +ho  planced an odrder for hose !ars no+ refuse o buy hem. Unist 5: 1/ There is a hi#h #o(ernmen deficit   be!ause #o(ernmen s'endin# is more a% re(enues.;/ They reay odmire him be!ause he is (ery su!!essfu in his 0ob.</ &is reay  performance him be!ause he is (ery su!!essfu in his 0ob.=/ In ie nam here is a s ro# trend o+ards earnin# En#ish/no Russian.>/ &is  gross  in!ome is ;>.BBBF 'er year/ bu af er he 'ays his a%es he ony F1>.BBB.5/ The focus  of his +ri inh is he a#ri!u ura se! or of he ie names e!onomy.@/ she earns ;B$# of ri!e 'er mon h +hi!h is ony abou F> in mnetar6   erm.?/ A ra'id rise in 'ri!es is !aed inflation. /  )iscal 'oi!y !onsis s of #o(ernmen s'endin# and a%ion.1B/ The level  of 'ri!es de'ends on he amoun of money in he e!onomy.11/ A one extreme  are 'eo'e +ho o(e he Gea es/ a he o her are 'eo'e +ho I hem.1;/ &is anl6sis  of he e!onomy sho+s ha #ro+ haas in!reased and infa ion faen.1</ My ma h ea!her had a bi# impact   8n me/ ha 2s +hy I de!ided o be!ome a my ea!her oo.1=/ The imalance  Ge +een im'or s and e%'or s !an !ause 'robem for he e!onomy.1>/ There are many many differen y'e of fina!ia instrument for endin# money o he +ho need i . Uinis 7: 1B/ The suburb of &a Noi shoud concentrate on !raf indus ry be!ause here are hundreds of handy !raf (ia#es.11/ In!omes ha(e been in!reasin#  stradil6 and no+ 'eo'e ha(e enou#h money o i(e !omfor aby.1;/ Huan# nin# has a aundance  of !oa.1</ &er na ionai y is En#ish so she is a citi8en of En#and.1=/ oods made in China is frea y comsume  in ie nam be!ause of heir o+ 'ri!e an (arious desin#s. Unist 9: 1/ If he of !offee is oo hi#h/ 'eo'e !oud !hoose ea as/  sustitute  for !offee.;/ The finan!ia !risis in he USA ;BB@ affect s ron#y o he +ord e!onomy and ha(e made i fa in he mos serious re!ession in his ory.</ In ie nam/ mos !om'anies are he sma and medium6 si*e enterprise  And he #o(ernmer a+ays !rea es he fa(orabe !ondi ion for hem o enefit. =/  Equilirium  .is he s a e in +hi!h mar$e su''y and demand baan!e ea!h o her and as a resu / 'ri!e be!ome s abe.>/  'ow of sppl6  is a mi!roe!onomi% a+ s a in# ha a o her fa! ors bein# eua/ as he 'ri!e of #ood or ser(i!e in!reases/ he uan iy of #oods and ser(i!es offered by so''iers in!ereases and (i!e (ersa.5/ low a demand   a mi!roe!onomi! a+ s a in# ha a o her fa! ors bein# eua/ as e 'ri!e of #ood or ser(i!es in!reases/ !onsumer demand for he #oods and seri(!es +i de!rease and (i!e (ersa.@/ 3emand a a #i(en 'ri!e is he amuon of #oods and ser(i!es +hi!h he buyer is eilling to by and he seer is willing to  se a ha 'ri!e.?/ Cus omers +i #e many enefit si!h as !on(enien!e/ sa(in# ime/ +hen usin# he !om'any2s 'rodu! s./ Tha !om'any is no suffi!ien i o afford ea!h s aff a !om'u er.UNIT1: MARKET CAPITALISM  I.comprehension questions 1. what are the two major decision-making units which market capitalism contains? They are business firms and househods. 2.how are the actions of business firms and households coordinated? They are !oordina ed hrou#h mar$e e%!han#e. 3.from whom does the business firm buy resources and sell outputs? &ousehods. 4.what does the demand for resource inputs depend on? I de'ends on he demand for fina 'rodu!$. 5. what do firms do with the resource they buy from households? They ransform resour!es in'u s in o bu 'u s of 'rodu! s and ser(i!es hen se o househods. 6. how can consumers get money to buy products sold by firms? Consumers ob ain in!ome)money hrou#h he sae on oan of heir resour!es o firms. .what do both households and business firms do through market e!change? They bo h desire o ma%imi*e heir e!onomi! +e bein#. Unit 2: .what is a market? ,- I is an arran#emen by +hi!h seers and buyers of a !ommodi y in era! o de ermine i s 'ri!e and uan i y. 2# $hat are wage rates? ,- +a#er es are 'ri!es of differen $inds of humman abor. 3# what will happen if the demand for a gi%en good rises? ,- he seers +i raise he ' i!e o ra ion ou a imi ed su''y and hi#her 'ri!e +i en!ura#e #rea er 'rodu! ion. 4# $hat will seller do if their products become o%erstocked at the going market price? ,- he seers +i o+er 'ri!es o unoad un+an ed modes. 5# how can an &uilibrium between buyer and sellers and sellers be restored when a good becomes o%erstocked at the going market price? ,- +hen a #oods be!omes o(ers o!$ed he seer +i o+er i s 'ri!e.A he o+er/ !onsumers +i +an o buy moer/ and 'rodu!ers +i +an o 'rodu!e fe+er. As aresu / he uiibrium +i b res ore. 6# $hat is a factor of production? ,- I is an inu in o he 'rodu! i(e 'ro!ers # 'ame three factor of production? ,- Land/ abor and !a'i a. (')* 3+,/010'0,) .  I.comprchension question . what is the importance of macroeconomics? Ma!roe!onomi! 'erforman!e is a !en ra fa! or affe! in# he su!!ess or faiure of na ions. 2 what does macroeconomics study? Ma!roe!onomi! s udies o(era e!onomi! rends su!h as em'oymen e(es/ e!onomi! #ro+ h/ and infa ion. 3. the article discusser countries at 2 opposite e!tremes# what are they? They are he !oun ries +hi!h ha #ro+ ra'idy +i hou ma0or imbaames and he one ha s a#na e and seem s u!$ in a si ua ion of hi#h infa ion and hi#h rade defi!i s. 4.what does fical policy deal with? I deas +i h #o(ernmen s'endin# and a%in#. 5. how can go%ernment ha%e a majoy impact on a countrys economic performance? o(ernmen ha(e ma0oy im'a! on a !oun ry2s e!onomi! 'erforman!e hrou#h i s e!onomi! 'i!ies fis!aand mone ary 'oi!ies. 6. what are four main areas that macroeconomics focuses on? They are NP/ em'oymen / infa ion and baan!e of 'aymen . .what are four tools of macroeconomic policy? They are fis!a 'oi!y/ mone ary 'oi!y/ in !ome 'oi!y and forei#n e!onomi! 'oi!y. . what do modern economists know more about than in the past? Modern e!onomi!s s $no+ more abou $no+ 'ui! 'oi!ies offe! he e!onomy. (nist5+ # $hat are coal and timber ewamples of? ,- They are e%am'es of ra+ ma eriar. 2# $hat happens to goods not consumed in he country? ,- I !an besod o o her !ou ries as e%'or . 3# how is the sie of a countrys economy determined? ,- he si*e of a !oun ry2s e!onomy is de ermined by he o a amoun of #oods and ser(i!es ha i 'rodu!es. 4# $hat it the best way to measure economy growth? ,- he bes +ay is o 'u a mone ary (aue on e(ery hin# bou#h or sod. 5# what is 78? ,- 3P is he measures of e!onomy a! i(i y ha in!udes a he #oods and ser(ies ha i 'rodu!es. 6# $hat happens in a healthy economy? A hea hy e!onomy of so+s s eadiy o(er a rea i(ey on# 'eriod ime. # $hat is a recession? ,- are!ers ion is a hea h e!onomy 4.. # 9ow is '8 different from 78? ,- 3P !on!en ra es !o(erin# he e!onomi! a! i(i y +hi!h a$es 'a!e +i hin he !oun ry2s borders/ +hie NP in!udes ne in erna iona rade.  Exercise : rewrite the following sentences using an appropriate relative pronoun and clause. .coffee is one of our big e!porters.foreigners lo%e our coffee a lot.-:coffee +hi!h forei#ners o(e a o is one of our bi# e%'or ers. 2.tom is the youngest director of the company.toms father was also a director.-: tom is he youn#es dire! or of he !om'any +hose fa her is aso a dire! or. 3.journalists talk much about this company. )ts rubbish badly pollutes the en%ironment.-: journalists talk much about this company +hose rubbish bady 'ou es he en(ironmen . 4. engineers are needed here . they will be paid well.-:engineers +ho are needed here +i be 'aid +e. 5. workers ask for higher wages. *hey work %ery hard.-: workers are ha +or$ (ery hard as$ for hi#her +a#es.5.  goods are o%erstocked. ellers ha%e to lower their price.-: goods  +hose 'ri!e are o(ers o!$ed seers ha(e o o+er. . the firms ha%e a loan to buy new machinery. *hey ha%e to pay it back soon.-:the firms +hi!h ha(e a oan o buy ne+ ma!hinery ha(e o 'ayi ba!$ soon. . japan is a de%eloped country. )t has a big automobiles industry.-: japan +hi!h is a de(eo'ed !oun ry has a bi# au omobies indus ry. ;.the a%erage wage in <ietnam is %ery low. *he go%ernmant is trying to raise it up.-: the a%erage wage in <ietnam +hi!h he #o(ermen is ryin# o raise i u' is (ery o+. =. customers ha%e to pay high.they will ne%er come back to buy goods here.-: customers +ho ha(e o 'ay hi#h +i ne(er !ome ba!$ o buy #oods here. .i saw the man .he told me to come back today.-:the man +ho I sod me o !ome ba!$ o day. 2.these workers decided to &uit jobs. *hey are not well-paid. 6- hese +or$ers +ho are no +e 'aid de!ided o ui 0obs. 3. you can keep money in backs. )t is safer than buying gold today.-: you can $ee' he money in ba!$s +hi!h is sayer han buyin# #od o day. /1$/)*1 *91 >00$)' 1'*1'1+ 1. the man who is standing  there is my teacher.2.the window which was   broken in the storm last night has now been repaired.3.the workers who work   in this workshop are skilled workers.4. economics students who are  studying hard for their e!ams will do well.5. some paintings which were stolen from the museum ha%ent been fourd yet.6. a lot of the people who were in%ited to the party can not come.. the factory which makes  bicycles has no profit in 3 years.. the student taking  part in the tour to paris last week were my students.;.the story written by paul appeared in the magaine. =. ,ost of the goods made in this factory are e!ported. . rice grown in many countries is a stable food throughout the world. 2.the cat walking on the wall is mine. 3. we are studying sentences contaniny adjecti%e clauses. 4. the painting drawn by john was sold last week.  REWRITE TE!E !E TE #E! U!I $ %&U 'E!!&&. .you cant tra%el abroad unless you dont ha%e a passport.2. ) will tell him the truth unless you are at least  years old.    3. you cant get a dri%ers license unless you are at least  years old.4.unless she doent studies hard# she will pass the e!am.5. unless ) dont get a raise in salary ) will work hard.6. ) will become %ery fat unless ) stop eating so much cake.. we wont go on a e!cursion unless the weather is bad tomorrow.. you will get hungry during the class unless you eatbreakfast. #( $E TE )*''*WI $ !E TE #E!  I T* +(!!I,E ,*I#E. .most economists define a nations wealth as what a citien of its owns. a na ion2s +ea h is defined as +ha a !i i*en of i s o+ns by mos e!onomis s. 2.the go%ernment of china bought , # the biggest motor company of the (. M he bi##es mo or !om'any of he USA/ +as bou#h by he #o(ernmen of !hina. 3.they in %ested most of their money in stock. Mos of heir money +as in(es ed in s o!$. 4. %iet nam usually e!ports rice to countries in frica. Ri!e is e%'or s by (ie nam o !oun ries in Afri!a. 5.in%estors hope that the price of gold will rise sharply. I is ho'e ha he 'ri!e of #od +i rise shar'y by in(es ors. 6. people consider that countries in central merica are ta! ha%ens because they re&uire little or no ta! from the foreign in%estors who come there to set up oprations. Coun ries in !en ra Ameri!a are !onsider o be a% ha(ens be!ause hey reuire i e or no a% from he forei#n in(es ors +ho !ome here o se u' o'ra ions .  REWRITE TE )*''*WI $ !E TE #E! WIT*UT #( $I $ TE  -E( I $!. .the current account gi%es a comprehensi%e picture of international trade. A !om'rehensi(e 'i! ure of in erna iona rade is #i(es by he !urren a!!oun . 2.when a product is sold for money# this money can then be used to buy another product or to. 7hen +e se a 'rodu! for money +e hen !an use his money o buy ano her 'rodu! or o in(es . 3.how &uickly the economy can grow is determined by each countrys money supply. ea!h !oun ry2s money su''y de ermined ho+ ui!$y he e!onomy !an #ro+. 4.money makes trade more manageable. Trade is ma$e more mana#eabe by money. 5.social security was set up to reduce po%erty among the elderly and disabled by the go%ernment. he #o(ernmen se u' so!ia se!uri y o redu!e 'o(er y amon# he edery and disabed. 6.china is said not to be able to come the greatest economy in the world by the economists because of its une&ual de%elopment between the city and the country. he e!onomis s say ha !hina no o be!ause of i s uneua de(eo'men be +een he !i y and he !oun ry .. we calculate the %alua of one currency in terms of another. he (aua of one !urren!y is !a!ua ed in erms of ano her. .the boss must sign the che&ue soon. The !heue mus be si#ned by he boss soon be. ,*#(U'(R/ E0ER#I!E 1. here are some public  'ro#rams o he' 'oor 'eo'e/ bu N8s 9non6#o(ernmen a or#ani*a ions are aso im'or an .;. he mus s o' his e!eessi%e  s'endin# or ese he +i no ha(e enou#h money o feed himsef.<. if you s udy (ery hard for a (ery on# ime e%entually  you +i be abe o s'ea$ En#ish +e.=. many 'eo'e ry o a(oid ta!ation  be!ause hey +an o $ee' heir money for hemse(es ins ead of #i(in# i o he #o(ernmen .>. his mo her has (ery restricti%e  rues/ he mus be a home before ?'.m and he !an2 brin# his #irfriend home.5. he !om'any +i implement   heir 'an af er hey ha(e enou#h money o do i .@. he doar is a (ery stable !urren!y sin!e i s (aue ony !han#e (ery i e durin# year.?. he hi#h a% on !i#are es induced  him o ui smo$in#.. she has many assets  in!udin# a !ar/ a house/ and a ee(ision.1B. he allocation  of o''or uni ies o s udy a his uni(ersi y shoud be based on s uden +ho has he hi#hes abii y/ no +ho has he mos money.11. he !om'ny finance  i 2s ne+ ma!hinery +i h a oan from he ban$.1;. realestale  in!udes and and a he buidin#s on i .1<. he balance   of plement is a re!ord of 'aymen s o o her !oun ries and re!ei' s from o her !oun ries.1=. hey are implement (ery diffi!u 'ro0e! ha he' o in!rease in!omes in rura areas.1>. my househod budget  in!udes s'endin# on housin# / food/ ee'hone/ee! ri!i y and !o hes.15.in (ie nam +e measure  dis an!e in $iome ers in Ameri!a +e use mies.1@. net  'rofi is he 'rofi ha remains af er 'ayin# a he e%'enses and a%es.1?. here are se(era ar#e automobiles !om'anies in 0a'an in!udin# Toyo a/&onda and Nissan.1. hey bou#h hea h insurance  so if hey are si!$ and mus #o o he hos'i a hey +on2 ha(e o use heir o+n money o 'ay he !os s.;B. ie nam shoud de(eo' i s foodstuffs indus ry sin!e mos of he 'eo'e in ie nam farmers.;1.if you e%'r row materials  you +i earn ess money han if you ma$e hem in o a fina 'rodu! o e%'or .;;. forei#n in %estment  in o!a rea es a e and o!a !om'anies !an aso 'ro(ide needed 0obs for o!a 'eo'e.;<. ha !om'any measuare  i s +or$ers2 'rodu! i(i y no ony by he number of shoes hey 'rodu!e bu aso by he uai y of ha shoes.;=.+ord e!onomy sar ed o #e in o recession a he end of he yeaf of ;BB@.III. <ocabulary 1!ercis Units 1: #  &e fied ou ea!h of he 'a#errs  in turn. ;/ 7e mus !onsider he e!onomi! well eing of 'oor 'eo'e +hen +e ma$e his 'oi!y.</ The boss i he oy 'erson +i h decision ma3ing  Po+er in his !om'any no one ese !an ma$e.=/ E!onomis s ma$e many assume +hen hey +ir e heir heories.>/ I is (ery difi!u o coordinate he s!hedues of a he s uden s and a he ea!hers in he uni(ersi y.5/ Sa is no to trans form  Dor su#ar e(en hou#h hey oo$ he same.@/ The husband and +ife are interdpendnt   &e !an2 i(e +i hou her and she !an2 i(e +i hou him.?/ The !om'any +an s o  purchase Inde%'ensi(e #oods in ie Nam o send o Ameri!a and sod in a hi#h 'rofi ./ Tha !om'any2s hi#h 'rofis are derived Drom he sae of shoes made in (ie nam and sod in an'an.1B/ The !hanes in #o(ernmen 'oi!y shoud transform  The ie namese e!onomy from he mar%is e!onomy in o a mar$e e!onomy.11/ They !an $ee' he money for a  given   ime 'eriod/ for e%em'e/ one year/ one year/ bu hen hey mus 'ay i ba!$.1;/ Many Ameri!a siness fim  7oud you i$e i in(es in ie Nam.1<. Many ie namese house holds  &a(e more han +o !hidren.1=/ The !om'any ha(e a loan for >BBF o buy ne+ ma!hines/ bu hey mus 'ay i ba!$ soon.1>. If +an o  pursue  a !areer in business/ you mus unders and he e!onomy) Unist241 ,  The +or$ers to rush . o(er ea!h o her o #e ou of he burnin# fa! ory.;/ 7i h infa ion/ 'ri!es tend to  rise (ery ui!$y.</ she s'ea$s En#ish/ Den!h and erman in addtion   o ie namese.=/ A ou s ore ie namese bi!y!es are over  stoc3  Nobody +i +an o buy hem a oday2s 'rin!e so hey 0us s ay in he s ore.>/Condi ions are (ery favorale  for findin# 0obs in a #ro+in# e!onomy.5/ 3urin# he +ar/ he #o(ernmen ration out mea and o her foods.@/ Ea!h  participant   In he semnar had #o #i(e a shor s'ee!h.?/ Af er hey unload    he #oods from he shif you !an a$e hem o your s ore./ The ne+ arrangement   In he mana#in# ma!hine of he !om'any ma$es i +or$ more eff!ien y.1B/ A o of ie names 'eo'e ruch To sho's +hen hey hear of he sho'2s sae off. They no e(en !are abou he uai y of he #oods.11/ The re!en  shift   in he e+!han#e ra e made im'or #ood !hea'er.1;/ The triad   8f and/ abor and !a'i a are !aed fa! ors of 'rodu! ion.1</ Af er he +ar i is diffi!u o restore An e!onomy o i s 're(ious s a e be!ause of dama#e from bobs.1=/ he  process  8f ma$in# ban$no es is (ery sim'e/ bu i reuires s'e!ia in'u s ha ordinary 'eo'e are no ao+ed o buy.1>. The ne+ series of !ars ha(e mis a$es in he hand bra$e/ so 'eo'e +ho  planced an odrder for hose !ars no+ refuse o buy hem. Unist 5: 1/ There is a hi#h #o(ernmen deficit   be!ause #o(ernmen s'endin# is more a% re(enues.;/ They reay odmire him be!ause he is (ery su!!essfu in his 0ob.</ &is reay  performance him be!ause he is (ery su!!essfu in his 0ob.=/ In ie nam here is a s ro# trend o+ards earnin# En#ish/no Russian.>/ &is  gross  in!ome is ;>.BBBF 'er year/ bu af er he 'ays his a%es he ony F1>.BBB.5/ The focus  of his +ri inh is he a#ri!u ura se! or of he ie names e!onomy.@/ she earns ;B$# of ri!e 'er mon h +hi!h is ony abou F> in mnetar6   erm.?/ A ra'id rise in 'ri!es is !aed inflation. /  )iscal 'oi!y !onsis s of #o(ernmen s'endin# and a%ion.1B/ The level  of 'ri!es de'ends on he amoun of money in he e!onomy.11/ A one extreme  are 'eo'e +ho o(e he Gea es/ a he o her are 'eo'e +ho I hem.1;/ &is anl6sis  of he e!onomy sho+s ha #ro+ haas in!reased and infa ion faen.1</ My ma h ea!her had a bi# impact   8n me/ ha 2s +hy I de!ided o be!ome a my ea!her oo.1=/ The imalance  Ge +een im'or s and e%'or s !an !ause 'robem for he e!onomy.1>/ There are many many differen y'e of fina!ia instrument for endin# money o he +ho need i . Uinis 7: 1B/ The suburb of &a Noi shoud concentrate on !raf indus ry be!ause here are hundreds of handy !raf (ia#es.11/ In!omes ha(e been in!reasin#  stradil6 and no+ 'eo'e ha(e enou#h money o i(e !omfor aby.1;/ Huan# nin# has a aundance  of !oa.1</ &er na ionai y is En#ish so she is a citi8en of En#and.1=/ oods made in China is frea y comsume  in ie nam be!ause of heir o+ 'ri!e an (arious desin#s. Unist 9: 1/ If he of !offee is oo hi#h/ 'eo'e !oud !hoose ea as/  sustitute  for !offee.;/ The finan!ia !risis in he USA ;BB@ affect s ron#y o he +ord e!onomy and ha(e made i fa in he mos serious re!ession in his ory.</ In ie nam/ mos !om'anies are he sma and medium6 si*e enterprise  And he #o(ernmer a+ays !rea es he fa(orabe !ondi ion for hem o enefit. =/  Equilirium  .is he s a e in +hi!h mar$e su''y and demand baan!e ea!h o her and as a resu / 'ri!e be!ome s abe.>/  'ow of sppl6  is a mi!roe!onomi% a+ s a in# ha a o her fa! ors bein# eua/ as he 'ri!e of #ood or ser(i!e in!reases/ he uan iy of #oods and ser(i!es offered by so''iers in!ereases and (i!e (ersa.5/ low a demand   a mi!roe!onomi! a+ s a in# ha a o her fa! ors bein# eua/ as e 'ri!e of #ood or ser(i!es in!reases/ !onsumer demand for he #oods and seri(!es +i de!rease and (i!e (ersa.@/ 3emand a a #i(en 'ri!e is he amuon of #oods and ser(i!es +hi!h he buyer is eilling to by and he seer is willing to  se a ha 'ri!e.?/ Cus omers +i #e many enefit si!h as !on(enien!e/ sa(in# ime/ +hen usin# he !om'any2s 'rodu! s./ Tha !om'any is no suffi!ien i o afford ea!h s aff a !om'u er.
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