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Tle-foods Review Notes

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   1 LICENSURE EXAMINATION FOR TEACHERS (LET ) MAJORSHIP: HOME ECONOMICS Focus: FOOD AND MAN 1 (FOOD PRODUCTION AND PREPARATION WITH NUTRITION) Competency: 1. Define common terms in food selection preparation and cookery. 2. Understand the different principles in food preparation. 3. Explain the different method of nutrient conservation. 4. Uphold desirable attitudes and values in food selection and preparation. 5. Prepare a low costs but nutritional meal. 6. Develop awareness on the proper ways of handing food marketing, storing, preparing, cooking and serving. 7. Identify the causes of spoilage of foods. 8. Differentiate five ways of preserving food. 9. Understand the essential of food preservation. 10. Demonstrate knowledge and skill in baking. PART I: CONTENT UPDATE   A. DEFINE THE COMMON TERMS OD SELECTION, PREPARATION AND COOKERY. FOOD PREPARATION TERMS    Baste   – to moisten meat or other foods while cooking to add flavor and to prevent drying of surface. Liquid is usually melted fat, meat drippings, fruit juice or sauce.    Blend   – to mix thoroughly two or more ingredients.    Bread   –  to coat w/ bread crumbs alone or to coat w/ bread crumbs then w/ dilutea slightly beaten egg or milk and again w/ crumbs.    Dice –   To cut into cubes, usually less than ½ inch.    Dot- To scatter small bits such as butter over the surface of foods.      Dredge- To sprinkle or coat w/ flour or other fine substances.      Flake- To break or pull apart a food like chicken or fish that divides naturally.    Fold- To combine by using two motions, cutting vertically through the mixture and turning by sliding across the bottom of the mixing bowl by each term.      Grate- To rub food against the grater to divide into small particles.      Knead-  To manipulate with a pressing motion accompanied by folding and stretching.      Marinate-  To let food stand in marinate usually an acid oil mixture.      Mince-  To cut or chop in very small pieces.      Pare-  To cut off the outside covering    Peel-  To strip off the outside covering.      Score-   to make like cuts on a surface, to cut ⅛ inches to ½ inches intervals in the fatty edge of steaks or chops to prevent edges from curling during cooking.    Skim-  To remove floating layer by passing a utensil under it as skimming milk by taking the cream.    Whip- To beat rapidly produce expansion this is a applied to cream, eggs and gelatin dishes. FOOD COOKING TERMS    Baking- To cook in an oven type appliance. Cover or an covered containers may be used.    Barbeque-  To roast slowly in a grid – iron, over coals or under a free flame or even electric unit, usually basting with a highly seasoned sauce.    Blanche-  To preheat in boiling water or steam.    Braise-  To cook slowly in a covered container in a small amount of liquid.    Caramelize-  To heat sugar or food containing sugar until a brown color or characteristics flavor develop.    Fry-  To cook in fat, applied specially (1) to cook in a small amount of fat also called sauce or pan-fry,(2) to cook in a deep layer of fat also called beep-fat fry.    Sauté-  to brown or cook in a small amount of fat.    Sear-  To brown the surface of meat by a small quantity of liquid.    Stir-fry - Same as sauté.    Toss - To tumble ingredients lightly with a lifting motion. Used two forks of a spoon or fork. B. UNDERSTAND THE PRINCIPLES IN FOOD PREPARATION To avoid error and save time and other resources follow the principles in getting ready to prepare food.   2    OBSERVE RULES FOR SAFETY AND SANITATION ►  Handle all utensils properly.   ►  Avoid touching the food whenever possible.   ►  be clean and well-organized in your work. ►  See to it that workers are free of communicable diseases, colds, sores or an infected wound.    Keep away food from cleaning agents, pesticides, and similar poisonous materials.    Store food under condition that protects it from contamination that retard the growth of bacteria. Holding temperature for hot food should be above 140 F and cold at temperature below 45 F leftover foods should be used as soon as possible. Foods that spoil readily should not be held over 24 hours without freezing.    Observe strictly safety precautions because of accidents caused by power tools, sharp instruments, and high temperatures. Factors like slick spots on floors, blind corners or collision with other family member. -   Injuries caused by cuts, burns and falls. -   Accident caused by faulty electrical connection with cut. worn or broken cord should be repaired immediately. -   Injury caused by lifting heavy equipment and large volume of materials. KNOW AND FOLLOW SPECIFIC REQUIREMENT OR ASSIGNMENTS Be sure to answer the following questions ● What items are to be prepared?   ● How much of each item is needed for a specified number of portions of a slated size?   ● Which recipe or method of preparation is to be used?   ● At what time is the food to be served?   ● Are there any specia l requirements of form or condition of service? ►  CHECK OR RE-CHECK CALCULATIONS TO ENSURE THEIR CORRECTNESS Recipes need to be adjusted for the number of portions required A recipes is standardized by carefully adjusting ingredients and their proportions to produce products of acceptable quality and in amounts sufficient for the desired number of portion of specified size. The following component help in standardizing a recipe. ● Name of recipe, the number and size of portion.   ● The ingredie nts, w/ amounts in weight and/or volume and description, such as melted, fat, cooked, or uncooked rice. ● The order and method of combining ingredients.   ●The equipment used in processing.      COLLECT SUPPLIES THAT WILL BE REQUIRED IMMEDIATELY SO THAT TIME AND EFFORT CAN BE SAVE.    ASSEMBLE NEEDED EQUIPMENT THAT ARE FUNCTIONAL AND IN GOOD CONDITION.    MAP OUT THE PROGRESS OF WORK Consider the following so that the activities can go forward in the quickest, easiest manner.    Position frequently used materials within reach.    Materials and equipment could be arranged in the best order of procedure.    Use both hands for a smooth and rhythmic flow of work.    Place items where other things will not have to moved to get the one required.    Systematize storage to avoid searching for needed things which can be exhausting.    Store items in or near the work center where they will be used most frequently.    Make the work center compact in arrangement to eliminate unnecessary movements.    ALLOT TIME FOR THE WORK TO BE DONE Timing is an important factor in preparation and service of high quality foods.    Know the amount of time required to do each jobs and allot the right amount for each.    Organize activities with enough time for each item so that all will be completed at the time desired.   3 C.EXPLAIN THE DIFFERENT METHODS OF NUTRIENT CONSERVATION Maintaining and Safeguarding Food Nutrient    Avoid thawing and refreezing frozen foods. Frozen foods when allowed to warm at room temperature and then refrozen can cause much nutrient loss.    Minimize bruises in fruits due to improper handling. Bruises increase the surface exposed to air and heat which destroy Vitamin C. Select fruits completely free of bruises to obtain optimum nutrient quality including aesthetic appeal.    As much as possible, buy vegetables and fruits only when needed. Prolong refrigeration can cause wilting which lessen the nutrient content.    Prepare fruits and vegetables such as side dishes, juices and salads only at the time needed. Don’t prepare severa l hours in advance. As they are exposed to air and light they loose nutrient content as well as aesthetic appeal.    Nutrients are found in the skin or just beneath the skin. Wash before paring and cutting. Serve immediately after slicing.    To prevent the darkening of certain fruits such as apples, bananas and mangoes, soak in calamansi, lemon or pineapple juice. Otherwise, skin or cut them immediately before serving.    Cut the vegetables as close to cooking period. Cover the cooking pan.    Keeps the water boiling before adding the vegetables?    Cook at the shortest time possible. Steaming, waterless cooking and pressure cooking are recommended methods because nutrient losses are reduced.    The shorter the time between cooking and serving, the more nutrients retained.    Avoid buying assorted cut fruits and vegetables. Exposed surfaces causes the loss of Vitamin C and other soluble vitamins other than the unsanitary handling and contamination from insect, bacteria, and use of unsanitary tools. D.UPHOLD DESIRABLE ATTITUDE AND VALUES IN FOOD SELECTION AND PREPARATION FOOD SELECTION 1.   Exercise firmness and control in making decision in choosing what to buy based on nutritional quality, health and safety of family and the family likes and values. 2.   Establish the habit of buying foods of the best quality at the most reasonable price. 3.   Appreciate the use of proper substitute when srcinal ingredients are not available or too expensive to buy. 4.   Make it a habit of reading labels to get information about the product. 5.   Practice allowing more than enough time in choosing what to buy so you can compare common foods items and be able to select the best brand. 6.   Control oneself in indulging in impulse buying and forgetting priorities when marketing. Stick to the market list no matter what. FOOD PREPARATION 1.   Develop the habit of preparing all needed tools, equipment and ingredients before starting to cook. 2.   Practice all nutrient conservation measures to safe keep nutrient in food. 3.   Appreciate a well-prepared nutritionally adequate and aesthetically prepared meal. 4.   Adapt absolute hygiene in the preparation of food. 5.   Exhibit a positive attitude towards work. Food preparation is a tiring but rewarding task. 6.   Exercise patience and creativity in preparing food that is acceptable and appreciated by the family. 7.   Adopt scientific attitudes in preparing and cooking food using the right quality of ingredients, correct measurement, correct temperature and correct procedure. E. PREPARE A LOW COST BUT NUTRITIOUS MEAL Low Cost Adequate Meals 1.   What to consider:    Consider foods that are inexpensive but contain relatively great amounts of nutrients.    Make an update of current prices in the market and foods in season and know where to buy to get the good buys.    Choose and combine nutritionally economical foods to arrive at low cost adequate meals.    Based on the 1996 price monitor foods which could be considered nutritionally economical include the following   4 For Group l or the Body Building foods- tagunton, shrimp, green mongo, dilis, alamang and tulingan. For Group lll or the Body Regulating Foods- papaya, tomatoes, malunggay, dahon sili and alugbati. 2.   How to Plan    Make a listing of nutritionally economical foods.    Come up with the nutritional requirements of each and every member of the family.    Nutritionally economical foods must be combined in the best way possible, with considerations for the proper bulk, the usual pattern, food preferences, as well as resources available for the preparation of such meals.    In the studies conducted in FNRI on menu planning, there is difficulty of meeting the requirements for thiamin, riboflavin and iron. For this reason, the FNRI recommends the inclusion of enriched margarine to increase levels of thiamin. Allow approximately 5 to 8 grams of 1-2 teaspoons. To easily meet riboflavin and iron requirement, the provision of small amount (8-10 grams or ¾ to 1 tablespoon per person) of liver in the menus was also advised. Minimizing Cost of Meals      Keep food cost within the budget.    Minimize food cost in meal planning.    Include foods in season.    Include easily available foods.    Consider appropriate substitute.    Used dried fish or beans to extend meat supply, extend rice with corn and root crop.    Utilize leftover foods if there are any.    Use inexpensive dishes and one dish meals where feasible.    Serve more fruit/fruits juices or root crops rather than processed junk snacks.    Plan the menu in advance and take time out to give it a thought.    Plan on foods liked by the family.    Plan baby’s foods from family pot.      Plan within available resources.    Be innovative and resourceful. Have your tools on hand ( be recipes, guides, etc.,) Minimizing costs of meals include purchasing and service in shopping, it is advised that menu planners should 1.   Prepare shopping list 2.   Shop alone 3.   Know the guide to purchasing (right quality and specifications) 4.   Know current cost of item 5.   Read labels and check weights of food and changes (money) 6.   Don’t over buy  7.   Exercise appropriate scheduling; list the food spoils in the basket F.PROPER WAYS OF HANDLING FOOD IN PREPARATION AND COOKING 1.   Cut fruits and vegetables immediately before cooking. This saves on nutrients. 2.   Peel fruits and vegetables thinly. Some nutrients are found between the skin and flesh. 3.   Use small amount of water when cooking vegetables. Use the water for soups and sauces. 4.   Do not overcook the vegetables nor reheat them. They tend to be soggy, unappetizing and lose some of their nutrients. 5.   Keep pot covered while cooking vegetables to prevent evaporation and oxidation of the nutrients. 6.   Avoid using baking soda in cooking vegetables. While it preserves the green color, it also destroys the vitamins. 7.   When cooking frozen vegetables place directly in boiling water. Do not thaw anymore. 8.   Wash rice once or twice. Use the rice washing for soups to utilize nutrients in the washing. 9.   Fry meats, fish, and poultry at low temperature to make the protein content digestible. 10.   In frying keep fat below smoking point because overheating makes it bitter and irritating. 11.   When cooking hard cooked eggs, cool immediately to prevent the discoloration of the yolk. The discoloration is due to the iron that accumulates in the periphery upon cooking; when cooked rapidly these will diffuse back in the yolk. 12.   When making dough be sure to dissolve the yeast in lukewarm water to activate the yeast. Knead the dough until smooth and sanity. When proper kneading is done, the
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