Turbocharger vs Supercharger

Turbocharger and Supercharger
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  Turbocharger vs Supercharger The Supercharger Superchargers are compressors which use power from the engine to compress the intake air. In reality, turbochargers are superchargers which are driven by engine exhaust. Typically, however, when one refers to a supercharger, they mean all superchargers except turbochargers. There are three types of superchargers which are commonly used: the roots blower, centrifugal superchargers, and screw-type superchargers. ach of these superchargers are driven by a pulley system by the engine crankshaft, so the faster the engine speed, the faster the supercharger speed. The roots blower and screw-type superchargers typically operate up to ! ,### $%&S. The centrifugal supercharger can reach speeds exceeding '#,### $%&S. The Turbocharger Turbochargers, however, are driven by the engine(s exhaust gases. ) turbocharger operates at maximum speeds often reaching ! #,### $%&S. The Comparison: Turbocharger vs Supercharger Response. Superchargers afford the engine immediate response since the supercharger is always compressing intake air, provided that the engine is rotating. )lthough this initial boost is very small, it(s growth is gradual with increased engine speed, resulting in a smooth increase in power. Turbochargers,on the other hand, suffer from what is refered to as turbo lag. *ecause of the inertia of the turbocharger rotating assembly, the turbo must +spool up+ before it is able to compress air, so there is no power increase at low engine speeds, as the turbo impeller starts rotating. )t T wide-open throttle/, there is usually a very sudden increase in turbo boost at a certain $%& range typically near 0### $%&/. Parasitic Power Loss. *ecuase superchargers are driven by the crankshaft, they draw some of the power which the crankshaft would be producing to compress the intake air. This parasitic power loss can exceed # hp. f course, the supercharger is more than making up for the power it uses by introducing additional air. Turbochargers, however, do not use any of the crankshaft(s power in order to operate.  Heat Production. 1ooler intake air is denser - which means more oxygen per unit volume. &ore oxygen means more power. $oots blowers are notorious for their heat production. This heat production is a result of inefficient compression of the intake charge. Turbochargers tend to operate at a much better efficiency thanthese types of superchargers. 1entrifugal superchargers can be 2ust as efficient as turbochargers, and offer the advantage of flexibility in placement. Turbochargers must be placed so that the exhaust flows through the turbo(s turbine. This brings the hot exhaust pipes closer to the intake pipes - resulting in higher intake temperatures. ) well designed centrifugal supercharger installation can reduce this heating, resulting in a cooler intake charge. Reliability. %eople often say that superchargers are more reliable than turbochargers. *ecause turbochargers operate at such high temperatures and are oil lubricated, if they are not allowed to cool down before the engine is turned off, the oil can bake inside the turbocharger. This can result in shorter turbocharger life. 3owever, with proper care and cool down, a turbocharger can last as long as an engine. Boost Levels. 4or absolute maximum power applications on engines, turbochargers allow much higher boost levels than superchargers. In tractor pulling, to take the example to the extreme, up to three turbochargers are used inseries to produce boost levels of up to nearly 5## psi6 Superchargers Turbochargers RootsBlowers TwinScrewSuperchargers Centri!ugalSuperchargers $esponse 0### $%& 4ast 7ery 4ast 0### $%& %ower 8rain 7ery 9ow 3igh 3igh 3igh 3eat %roduction &oderate 7ery 3igh&oderate &oderate $eliability ood 7eryood xcellent 7ery ood *oost 9evels 7ery 3igh 9ow 9ow &oderate &anufacturers arrett, 3olset,;;;, &itsubishi aton hipple, ;enne*ell 7ortec 7ortech/,%axton
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