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  Uganda Background Uganda is a landlocked country in east Africa. Uganda is bordered by South Sudan to the north, the democratic republic of Congo to the west, Rwanda and Tanzania to the south and Kenya to the east. Uganda became a British territory in 1890. It became independent in 1962. Since the late 1980s Uganda has rebuilt from an abyss of civil war and economic catastrophe to become a relatively stable, peaceful and prosperous country. In the 1970s and 1980s Uganda was notorious for its human rights abuses, first during the military dictatorship of Idi Amin from 1971-79 and then after the return to power of Milton Obote, who had been ousted by Amin. During this time up to half a million people were killed in state-sponsored violence. The dictatorial regime of Idi Amin from 1971-79 was responsible for the deaths of 300,000 opponents and guerrilla war and human rights abuses under Milton Obote from 1980-85 claimed at around another 200,000 lives. When Idi Amin overthrew the government in 1971 there was a long period of violence and civil war. This increased the demand for weapons. Amin borrowed $1 million to pay for weapons leaving the country in huge debt. Amin also expelled the wealthy Asian’s who had been brought over by the British Empire at the beginning of the 20 th  century to build infrastructure such as railways. These Asian’s had often become good business owners, the expulsion of these businesses lead to a collapse in government tax revenue. Since becoming president in 1986 Yoweri Museveni has introduced democratic reforms at a steady pace and been credited with substantially improving human rights, notably by reducing abuses by the army and the police. Musevini made Uganda into a one party state but multi-party politics was restored in 2005. The opposition accuses President Museveni of authoritarian tendencies. This galvanised the opposition, which disputed Mr Museveni's victory in the 2011 presidential elections and went to organise street protests about the cost of living and political freedoms. However, EU observers said that had been improvements in the conduct of elections in Uganda  since the 2006 elections. The president has also come under fire for Uganda's military involvement, along with five other countries, in neighbouring DR Congo's 1998-2003 civil war. Facts    Capital is Kampala. Kampala had a population of 1.535 million in 2009.    The south of Uganda is heavily influenced by Lake Victoria, one of the world’s  biggest lakes. Lake Victoria prevents temperatures from varying significantly and moderates precipitation. Most cities are located in the south.    The area of Uganda is 241,038 square kilometres (93,072 miles). This means that Uganda is the 81 st  biggest country in the world, being just slightly smaller than the UK.    Uganda is the second most populous land locked country in the world. Although landlocked, Uganda contains many large lakes. Besides, Lake Victoria there is Lake Albert, Lake Kyoga, Lake Edward and many others.    Uganda has a tropical climate. It is generally rainy with two dry seasons from December to February and June to August. The north-east is semi-arid.    Uganda has substantial natural resources. Natural resources in Uganda include; copper, cobalt, hydropower, limestone, salt, fertile arable land, recently discovered oil and gold.    27.94% of land in Uganda is used for agriculture. There is 144.2 square km of irrigated land in Uganda.    Total renewable water resources were 66 cubic kilometres in 2011    Major religions are Christianity and Islam    Major languages are English, Swahili, Laguna, Vanuatu Banu and Nilone languages.    Environmental issues include; drainage of wetlands for agriculture, deforestation, overgrazing, desertification, soil erosion and poaching.    20% of Ugandans are said to be undernourished.    Uganda has an estimate population of 35.9 million meaning it has the 36 th  biggest population in the world.    With a population growth rate of 3.24%, Uganda has the 9 th  fastest growing population in the world.    With a birth rate of 44.17 births per 1000 of the population, Uganda has the 3 rd  highest birth rate in the world.    Net outmigration rate of -0.76 migrants per 1000 of the population in 2014.    13.5% of the population lived in urban areas in 2011. The rate of urbanisation is 5.74%.    9.5% of GDP is spent on healthcare. In 2005 there were 0.12 doctors per 1,000 of the population. There were 0.5 hospital beds per 1,000 of the population in 2010.    91.3% of the urban population have access to improved water supply. 71.7% of the rural population have access to improved water supply.    33.9% of the urban population have access to improved sanitation. 35.2% of the rural population have access to improved sanitation.     In 2012 7.2% of adults were living with HIV/AIDs, the 10 th  highest rate in the world. 1,549,200 people were living with HIV/AIDs in 2013, the 6 th  most people living with HIV/AIDs in a country. 63,300 died in 2012 of HIV/AIDs in Uganda.    Only 4.3% of adults are obese.    14.1% of under 5’s were underweight in 2011. This is a problem as it can cause stunted growth which can cause problems in later life.    3.3% of GDP was spent on education.    A ¼ of children aged 5-17 were working in 2010 in Uganda. Many work on tobacco farms.    24.5% live below the poverty line.    There were 16.355 million mobile phones in 2013.    Uganda has 60 protected areas including 10 natural parks. Bwinda impenetrable Natural Park and Ruwenzori mountains Natural Park are both UNESCO world heritage sites. Key stats Population (July 2014 estimate) 35.9 million (2012 UN) 35.6 million GNI per capita (2011) $1,124 (1990) $517 GNI per capita (PPP) (1990) $517 (2011) $1328 GDP (PPP) (2013) $54.34 billion (2012) $51.47 billion (2011) $50.08 billion GDP growth rate (2013) 5.6% (2012) 2.8% (2011) 6.2% GDP per capita (2013) $1,500 Water withdrawal per capita (2005) 12.31 cubic m/yr Water withdrawal CIA world fact book (2005) 41% used for domestic purposes 10% used for industry 43% used for agriculture Age structure (2014) 0-14 48.7% 15-24 21.2% 25-54 25.7% 55-64 2.1% 65+ 2.1% Dependency ratio 103.3% Youth dependency ratio 98.42% Median age 15.5 years Population growth rate (1990) 3.5% (2011) 3.2% (2013) 3.2% Birth rate 44.17 births per 1000 of the population Migration rate Net outmigration rate of -0.76 migrants per  1000 of the population in 2014. Maternal mortality rate (1990) 670 deaths per 100,000 live births (2008) 430 deaths per 100,000 live births (2010) 310 deaths per 100,000 live births Life expectancy at birth (1990) 47.4 years (2011) 54.1 years (2014) 54.48 years men- 53.1 years Women- 55.86 years Fertility rate 5.97 children on average born to every woman Adult literacy 73.6% of the population over 15 can read and write. 82.6% of men 64.6% of women. Labour force (2013) 17.4 million Under five mortality rate (1990) 184 deaths per 1000 live births (2009) 128 deaths per 1000 live births HIV prevalence (1990) 10.2% (2005) 6.3% (2009) 6.5% (2012) 7.2% Urban population (% of people living in urban areas) (1990) 11.1% (2011) 13.5% Urbanisation rate 5.74%. (2011) Total external debt (1990) 2.6 billion (2010) 3 billion Debt interest (% of GDP per year ) (1990) 0.8% (2010 0.1% Debt as a % of GDP (1990) 61 % (2010) 18% Government spending (% of GDP) (1990) 7.5% (2010) 11.8% Economy Uganda is vulnerable to changes in the world price of coffee, its main export earner. Oil discoveries have boosted prospects. Western-backed economic reforms produced solid growth and falls in inflation in the 1990s, and the discovery of oil and gas in the west of the country boosted confidence. The global economic turndown of 2008 hit Uganda hard, given its continuing dependence on primary products, and pushed up food prices.
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