Underground minig methods.pdf

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  Socety for Minng, Metalurgy and Exploraton Inc. (SME) 8307 Shaffe Pakway ittleton, Coloado, USA 8027 (303) 9739550 I (800) 763332  wwsmenetog SME adances the woldwide mineals community though infomation exchange and pofessional deelopment. SME is the wold's lagest pofessional association of mineals pofessionals Copyight© 200 Sociey fo Mining, Metallugy, and Exploation, Inc All Rights Reseved Pinted in the United States of Ameica No pat of this publication may be epoduced, stoed in a etieal system, o tansmitted in any fom o by any means, electonic, mechanical, photocopying, ecoding, o othewise, without the pio witten pemission of the publishe. Dsclamer The papers contained in this v olum e are published as supplied by individual authors. Any statem ent or vie ws pre-sented here are those of  individual auhors and are not necessarily those of the Socity for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc T he m ention of trade nam es f or com m ercial products does not im ply  the approv al or endorsement of SME Cover images contibuted by The tasca Consulting Goup, the Climax Molybdenum Company, and LKB SBN 0-87335193-2 Library of Congress Cataoging-inPublcaton Data Underground m ining m ethods : engineering fundam entals and international case studies  I edited by W illiam  A  Hustrulid and R ichard L Bullock . p cm. Includes bibliogaphical efeences and index ISBN 087335932  Mining engineeing . Hustulid, W.A I, Bullock, Richad L TN145.U53 2001 6222dc21 2001027301 Contents SECTON 1 SECTON 2 SECTION 3 Peface ix GENERAL MINE DESGN CONSIDERATIONS 1 CHAPTER 1 Undegound Mining Methods and Applications 3 HansHamrin CHAPTER 2 Geneal Planning of the Noncoal Undegound Mine 15 Richard LBullock CHAPTER 3 Planning the Undegound Mine on the Basis of Mining Method 29  Richard Bullock and William Hustrulid CHAPTER 4 Cost Estimating fo Undegound Mines 49 Scott A Stebbins and Otto L. Schumacher CHAPTER 5 Mineal and Metal Pices Mechanisms, nstability, and Tends 73 Peter A. Howie and Roderick GEggert ROOM-AND-PLLAR MNNG OF HARD ROCK 81 CHAPTER 6 Mining Methodology and Desciption: The Immel Mine 83 William R Begg and Nikolai APohrivchak CHAPTER 7 The Vibunum Tend UndergoundAn Oeview 89 Jon Carmack, Bob Dunn, Michael Flach, and Greg Sutton CHAPTER 8 Pilla Extaction and Rock Mechanics at the Doe Run Company in Missoui 99 to 2000 95 L. Lane, R. Yanske, L Clark, and DP. Roberts CHAPTER 9 Modifications of the RoomandPilla Mining Method fo Polish Coppe Oe Deposits 103 Waldemar Korzenlowski and Andrzej Stanklewicz CHAPTER 10 Undehand RoomandPilla Mining as Applied at the Auroa Mine, Chacas Unit, Gupo Mexico 111 Marco APerez Gand Abel Gonzlez V CHAPTER 11 Undegound Mining of Fozen Places 119 Michael G. Nelson ROOM-AND-PLLAR MINING OF SO ROCK 129 CHAPTER 12 Mining at IMC Potash Calsbad 131 P Livings tone, J Purcell, DMorehouse, anad D. Waugh CHAPTER 13 Mississippi Potash, Incs, Undegound Opeations 137 Victoria Herne and Tom McGuire iii  SECTON 4 SECTION 5 SECTION 6 CHAPTER 4 Avanc MnW Auomaon n Poas 43 p hn Jony CHAPTER 5 CosCcu Mchanz Cu-anFl Mnng a PCS Nw Bunswck Dvson 4 D ob ONGWALL MINNG O HARD ROCK 55 CHAPTER 6 Underground Mining at Impala Platinum  Ltd., in the Nortw est Prov ince of Sout Africa 57 GR Ackeran andA.W Jame son CHAPTER 7 Mnng Pacc fo InmaD Naow aula  Bos w Pacua Rfnc o h  Sa an Kkso Golfs 65 P C CHAPTER 8 Exacon of a W  Boy a D n h SV/3 Aa a Pac Dom Wsn Aas Jon Vnu 7 N ingh nd AJ  McDond SHRNKAGE STOPING 87 CHAPTER  Snkag Song a h Mouska Mn 8 ob Mchnd, Pick Godin, nd Chn Douc CHAPTER 20 Snkag Song Paccs a h Schwazwa Mn 5 Buc Noqui SUBLEVE STOPNG 205 CHAPTER 2 Goun-Saly-Bas Mn Dsgn Guns a h Bunswck Mn 207 Pick Andix nd Bd im CHAPTER 22 Song a h Pysam Mn 25 P ekka P era, Sep po Tuovinen , Jyrki K orteniemi, Marko Matinlassi, and Sami Nilranen  CHAPTER 23 Naow  Mnng n Znkguvan Swn 22 MFink, M  Oon, HThohg, J  nm, nd G Johnon CHAPTER 24 Mnng aons a Pa Rg on  ComanyA Cas Suy 22 Jon Ovnic CHAPTER 25 Suvl Song a h Wams Mn 235 Dvid Bonkho nd Gg Bouw CHAPTER 26 Suvl n SongDsgn an Pannng a  ymc Dam Mn 23 om Ugg CHAPTER 27 Cannngon Mn30 Mon uncs of Slv  Ya fom a 300-m Cu 245 Pu Hy, Mn Bo, nd Nico Bouin CHAPTER 28 Suvl Song a Eco Bays Lamfoo Mn, Ruc, Wash 257 Godon ow CHAPTER 2 Sulv n Song a E Soao Mn: A Gomcanc Calng 263 Nobo V Condo nd Mco F.Gvic CHAPTER 30 Ungoun Mnng n h Koa Pnnsua Russa 27 Anoy A Kov, Yui V Dmidov, Igo I Bonov, Og Y Chukin, Vdiv MBuyv, dimi N Aminov, nd Vico A Mv CHAPTER 3 Ungoun Mnng aons a h McAu Rv Uanum Mn 28 Doug Bi nd Chuck Edwd iv SECTION  SECTION 8 SECTION 9 CUT-AND-ILL MNNG 287 CHAPTER 32 Ragan Ungoun Poucon n an Acc Envonmn 28 . Ponovo CHAPTER 33 Mnng of PGMs a h S  wa Mn 2 D. By, A  Axnd W icknd, nd D Einon CHAPTER 34 Mcanzng Sunsn Mn aons 30 Mich E. M cn CHAPTER 35 Unhan Cuan Mnng a  Lucky ay Mn 33 Cyd Pppin, Tom Fudg, K Hmn, Doug By nd y DVo CHAPTER 36 Pasmnco Bokn H Mn 3 Dvid Edwd nd Ni  u CHAPTER 37 Rock Suo n Cuan Mnng a h Krsng Mn 325 Nob Kund, P-Iv Mkund, nd Mk Bod CHAPTER 38 Unan CuanF Mnng a h Muay Mn, J Canyon Jon Vnu 333 C EBch, Gg ub, nd Bnjmin Gunh CHAPTER 3  Can Ungoun Mn 33 J Godon obing CHAPTER 40 Unhan Cuan a  Back Bufog Mn 345 Dn Kump nd Tim Anod CAPTER 4 Cas Suy: Sacona D Co Mn 35 Hugh . Mcc nd Ghm wn CHAPTER 42 Evoluon of Uncu-an- a SMJs Jouac Mn anc 355 onnoy SUBLEVE CAVING 35 CHAPTER 43 Ungoun Ion  Mnng a LKB Swn 36 CQuinio, M Quinio, nd 0. Hdm CHAPTER 44 Sulv Cavng U a a INCs So Mn 36 Hy Buk CHAPTER 45 Longuna Sulv Cavng Bg B Mn 37 John Py CHAPTER 46 Toy an Pacc of VyagSca Suv Cavng 38 C.Quinio,   on, nd WA. Huuid CHAPTER 47 Suvl Cavng: A s Look a s Buk Mnng Mho 385 CH. Pg nd G Bu PANE CAVING 35 CHAPTER 48 Hnson Mn 37 iim D ch CHAPTER 4 Paaoa Ungoun Mn Pojc  405 Kih Cd P Town nd, nd nk u CHAPTER 50 Bock Cavng Lft 1 of h Nohaks E6 Mn  4 MHou, Avn A, nd J Dudy V  This book is dedicated to the memory of Marianne Snedeke� who was the guiding light and the driving force behind SME book publications for many  J many years. viii P In 1556 Georgius gricola wrote e Re Metaia one of the first and probably the most famous of mining reference works. In Book 1 he reects rathe eleganty on mining and mines. Many persons hod the opinion that the meta indstries are fottous and that the occupation is one of sordid toil, and altogether a kind of usiness reuiring not so much skill as labour. But as for myself, when I reflect carefly upon its special ponts one by one, t appears to e far otherwise. For a mine must have the greatest skill in his  work, that he may kow first of all what mountain or hill,  what valley or plain, can e pospected most proftably, or  what he should leave alone moreover, he must understand the veins, stringers, and seams in the rocks hen he must be thoroughy famliar wth the many and varied species of earths, juices, gems, stones, mabes, rocks, metas, and compounds. He must also have a complete knowledge of the method of making all underground works. astly, thee are the various systems of assaying substances and of preparing them fo smeting and here again there are many altogether divese methods. Furthermore, there are many arts and sciences of  which a miner should not be ignorant irst there is hilosophy, that he may discern the srcin, cause, and nature of subteranean things for then he wil be able to dig out the veins easily and advantageously, and to obtain moe abundant eslts fom his mining. Secondly, there is Medicine, that he may e ale to look after his diggers and other workmen, that they do not meet wth those diseases to which they are more lable than wokmen n othe occupatons, or if they do meet with them, that he hmself may e able to heal them or may see that the doctos do so. Thirdly follows stronomy, that he may know the dvisions of the heavens and from them udge the direction of the veins. Fourthly, there is the science of Surveying that he may be able to estmate how deep a shaft should be sunk to reach the tunnel whch is being drven to it, and to determine the imits and boundaries n these workngs, especialy in depth Ffthy, his knowledge of rithmetical Scence shold be sh that he may calculate the cost to be incurred in the machinery and the working of the mine. Sixthly, his learnng must comprse rchitecture, that he hmsef may constuct the varios machnes and timer work reured ndeground, or that he may e abe to explan the method of the construction to othes. ext, he must have kowledge of rawing, that he can draw plans of hs machinery Lastly, there is the Law, especially that dealng with metas, that he may claim his own rights, that he may ndetake the duty of giving others his opinon on legal matters, that he may not take ix another man's propety and so make trouble fo himself, and that he may fulfl hs oblgations to others according to the law It s therefore necessay that those who take an nterest n the methods and precepts of mnng and metallurgy shoud read these and others of our ooks stdiously and dilgently or on evey point they shold conslt expert mining people, though they will discover few who are sklled in the whole art s a rule one man undestands ony the methods of mning, another processes the kowledge of washing, another is experienced in the art of smelting, another has a knowledge of measuring the hidden parts of the earth, another is skilful n the art of making machnes, and inally, another is learned in mining law. But as for s, thogh we may not have perfected the  whoe at of the discovery and preparaton of metals, at east we can be of geat assistance to persons studious n ts acuisition. In contnuing along the path of gricola, the Society for Mining, Metalurgy and Exporation, Inc (SME, has povided the focus, stimulus, and support for a numer of books covering the different inteests and needs of its membershp, the mining community as a whoe, and the public it serves. though a rather recent effort had produced the SME Miig Egieerig Habook in 1974 some peope felt that a book devoted strctly to nderground mining was needed, one which coud be used for the training of new mining enginees as well as serng as a efeence book for those aleady in the feld. he SE Book ublshing ommittee ageed, and the Uergro Miig Methos Habook emerged as a tite and obectve A editorial advisory boad was fomed, an outlne was developed, and section editors wee selected The book that emerged in 1982 consists of eight sections General Mine esign onsderations, Stopes euing Minimum Support, Stopes euiring Some dditional Support Other Than illars, avng Methods, nderground Euipment, Financal onsdeations, Foundations for Design, and Mne Ventilation. It has een nealy 20 years since the Habook (which ove the years has become affectionately known as the Blue Book because of the color of ts cover was pulished and mch has taken place in the interim Some of us felt that it was time for the next volme in this seies of books stretching back to gicola.  poposal sbmitted to the SME Book Pubishng ommittee to do  just that was approved by the SME Board of Dectors at its ugst 999 meeting, and the project to produce a companon volume to the Blue Book was underway From concepton to ith, the Blue Book reured nearly 8 years. In the present case, the book was put on a fast track, and publication was schedued for 2001 This new volume
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