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Unep Pops Nip Guid Articlepaperpfosinv 4.En

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Unep Pops Nip Guid Articlepaperpfosinv 4.En
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    Survey and environmental/health assessment of fluorinated substances in impregnated consumer products and impregnating agents Allan Astrup Jensen & Pia Brunn Poulsen FORCE Technology Rosanna Bossi DMU University of Aarhus Survey of Chemical Substances in Consumer Products,  No. 99 2008    The Danish Environmental Protection Agency will, when opportunity offers, publish reports and contributions relating to environmental research and development projects financed via the Danish EPA. Please note that publication does not signify that the contents of the reports necessarily reflect the views of the Danish EPA. The reports are, however, published because the Danish EPA finds that the studies represent a valuable contribution to the debate on environmental policy in Denmark.   3 Contents PREFACE 7   List of used acronyms 9   SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 11   1   BACKGROUND GOAL AND TARGET GROUP 17   1.1   B ACKGROUND  17   1.1.1   Chemistry 17    1.1.2   Production and use 19   1.1.3   Global pollutants 19   1.1.4   Known polyfluorinated substances 20   1.1.5   Projects on perfluorinated substances carried out previously in Denmark 21   1.2   P URPOSE  21   1.3   M ETHODS APPLIED FOR THE SURVEY  22   2   PRODUCERS OF FLUORINATED COMPOUNDS 23   3   FLUORINATED SUBSTANCES IDENTIFIED 27   3.1   C ONTACT TO COMPANIES  27   3.2   I NTERNET SEARCH  28   3.3   I NFORMATION OBTAINED FROM THE D ANISH P RODUCT R EGISTER  30    3.3.1    Search in the Danish Product Register 31    3.3.2   Fluorinated substances identified in the Danish Product Register 31    3.3.3   The identified substances and their uses 36    3.3.4   The identified substances and their OECD grouping 38    3.3.5   Comparison with the former search in 2001 41   4   OCCURRENCE IN CONSUMER PRODUCTS 43   4.1   O CCURRENCE IN IMPREGNATING AGENTS  45   4.1.1   Impregnating agents for footwear 48   4.1.2   Impregnating agents for carpets and mats 49   4.1.3   Impregnating agents for textiles, leathers and furniture 49   4.1.4   Impregnating agents for car interiors (textiles) 50   4.2   O CCURRENCE IN IMPREGNATED PRODUCTS  51   4.2.1   Clothes 51   4.2.2   Waterproof clothing and all-weather clothes 51   4.2.3   Footwear 53   4.2.4   Furniture 54   4.2.5   Carpets and mats 54   4.2.6    Sunshades/awnings, tents, umbrellas and parasols 56   4.3   O CCURRENCE IN OTHER RELEVANT PRODUCTS  56   4.3.1   Paints 56   4.3.2   Printing inks 58   4.3.3    Auto polish and -wax 58   4.3.4   Floor polish 59   4.3.5    Ski wax 60   4.3.6   Cleaning agents for glass 60     4 5   CONSUMPTION OF FLUORINATED SUBSTANCES IN DENMARK 63   5.1   E XPERIENCES  63   5.2   R ESULTS  63   6   ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF POLYFLUOROALKYLATED SUBSTANCES 67   6.1   E NVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY ,  PATHWAYS AND LEVELS  67   6.1.1   Background 67    6.1.2   Physical-chemical properties 67    6.1.3   Degradation 70   6.2   E NVIRONMENTAL FATE AND LEVELS  72   6.2.1   Environmental release 72   6.2.2   Levels in the ambient air and precipitation 73   6.2.3   Levels indoors 76   6.2.4   Occurrence in remote area and long-range transportation 78   6.2.5   Levels in environmental waters, groundwater and drinking water 81   6.2.6   Levels in wastewater and sludge 83   6.2.7    Levels in soil and sediments 84   6.2.8   Levels in biota and wildlife 85   6.3   E COTOXICITY  92   6.4   E NVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT  93   7   HUMAN EXPOSURE 95   7.1   C ONSUMER PRODUCTS  95   7.2   A IR EXPOSURE  96   7.3   N ON - STICK COOKWARE  96   7.4   P APER IMPREGNATION AND MIGRATION INTO FOOD  97   7.5   F OOD INTAKE  98   7.6   D RINKING WATER  98   7.7   O VERALL EXPOSURE SCENARIOS  98   8   LEVELS OF POLYFLUOROALKYLATED SUBSTANCES IN HUMAN TISSUES 99   8.1   L EVELS IN HUMAN MILK  99   8.2   L EVELS IN HUMAN BLOOD  100   8.2.1   Occupational exposure 101   8.2.2   General population exposure 101   8.2.3   Cord blood 108   8.3   L EVELS IN SEMEN  109   8.4   L EVELS IN THE LIVER  109   9   TOXICITY TO HUMANS 111   9.1   B IOCHEMICAL EFFECTS  111   9.2   C ANCER  111   9.3   D EVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY  111   10   ANIMAL BIOASSAYS AND N V TRO  TESTS 113   10.1   T OXICOKINETICS AND METABOLISM  113   10.1.1    Absorption 113   10.1.2   Biotransformation 113   10.1.3    Accumulation 113   10.1.4   Elimination 114   10.2   T OXICOLOGY  114  
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