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Unit 3b Making Definitions 2014 15

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  Handout 3b   , Engleski jezik 1 (IPS) 46 Language focus 4: Making definitions 1. Structures typically used in making definitions    Expressions based on a more general noun used to define a more particular one:   … is another word for…   … is another way of saying…   … abbreviation for …   … a common   term for …   … a part of…   … a method of …ing   …   a set of …   … a type/kind of… that…   … a process of …ing   … the act of …ing  ... a phenomenon which ... Which of the phrases above would you use to define the following: algorithm debugging Silicon Valley operating system microprocessor anti-virus software specs Inc. /Ltd.    Other expressions containing verbs or phrases used to introduce an example of something: … means (that) …   ... refers to …   …, such as…   … stands for …   …, for example, …   … can be defined as …   The acronym ECDL stands for ‘European Computer Driving License’. The term ‘port’ refers to  any socket or channel in a computer system into which an input/output device may be connected. The CPU can be defined as  the brain of the computer.  ___________________________________________________________________________    Synonyms / antonyms are used: To highlight   means to select by marking  on the display screen. Enabling  a function is the opposite of disabling  it. Technophobia is  fear   or dislike  of advanced technology or complex devices and especially computers  ___________________________________________________________________________    Present simple:  A modem is a device that connects  a computer to the Internet.  ___________________________________________________________________________  Handout 3b   , Engleski jezik 1 (IPS) 47  _________________________________________________________________________    Infinitives: To import   means to use data produced by another application . To input   means to enter   (data etc.).  ________________________________________________________________________    Passive: The term output refers to results which are produced   by the computer.  A handheld (computer) is a small portable computer that can be held   in one hand.    __________________________________________________________________________    Relative clauses:  A help desk assistant is a person whose job is to provide support to computer users.   A biometric device is the one that measures some aspect of a living being.    ___________________________________________________________________________    Reduced (‘shortened’) relative clauses:   Internet Explorer is a free browser program developed by Microsoft.  (= which was developed by Microsoft.)  An avatar is a small picture representing a computer user in a game, on the Internet, etc.  (= that represents a computer user...)  ___________________________________________________________________________  Handout 3b   , Engleski jezik 1 (IPS) 48 2. Practice 2.1. Examples of definitions of terms in various word categories    Complete the definitions below. In the definitions, articles and prepositions have been omitted. Sometimes no word is missing.    Which structures / procedures for making definitions listed in this unit can you find in the examples below? expansion (noun)  = an act  ____ increasing or making something increase  ____ size or amount discrete   (adjective)  = consisting of  ____ distinct or unconnected elements; non-continuous to plug in / into   (verb)  = to connect  ____ piece of electrical equipment  ____ the main supply  ____ electricity or to  ____ another piece of  ____ equipment circuitry   (uncountable noun)  =  ____ electronic circuits and components used in  ____  electronic equipment digital (adjective)  = using  ____ system of receiving and sending information as  ____ series of the numbers one and zero analogue (adjective)  = using  ____ continuously changing range  ____ physical quantities to measure or store  ____ data a digital device  =  ____ one using a system  ____ which information is shown as  ____ series of two digits, 0 and 1  Handout 3b   , Engleski jezik 1 (IPS) 49 2.2. Using keywords to build definitions of hardware-related terms    Here are some terms commonly used in the context of computer hardware. Make  full   sentences based on the given keywords. If necessary, add: -   articles (a, an, the) -   linkers (and, or, but etc.) -    prepositions (on, at , in, of etc.) -   auxiliary verbs (to be etc.) -   relative pronouns (who, which, that etc.) -   other structures used in making definitions covered in this unit Example: laptop  –  called notebook  –  portable computer  –  carried around  –   rested on user’s lap >>> A   laptop computer ( also   called a  notebook) is a kind of a   portable computer that can be   carried around or rested on user's lap. term to be defined: keywords to be used: a.   desktop computer conventional microcomputer  –  used  –  desk  –  as tool  –  individual user b.   workstation location  –  computer  –  with its associated equipment  –  is used  –  such as  –  designer's work area c.   handheld computers are compact, pocket-sized devices, also called palmtop computers since they can be handheld d.    pen-based handhelds main input device  –  electronic pen  –  not have a keyboard e.   PDA personal digital assistant  –  term for any small mobile hand-held device  –  provides computing and information storage and retrieval capabilities  –  personal or business use  –  often  –  keeping schedule calendars and address book information handy  f.   multimedia computer can process different forms  –  data  –  text  –  graphics  –  audio (sound)  –  animation  –  video g.   multimedia computer systems can  –  used for edutainment  –  combination  –  education and entertainment h.   upgrade (verb) make a system more powerful  –  more up-to-date  –  add new equipment i.   compatible (two hardware or software devices)  –  function correctly  –  together  j.   output (verb) transfer  –  information or data  –  from store  –  user k.    peripherals hardware equipment  –  attached  –  CPU

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