United Space School 2014 Assignments

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   United Space School 2014 Mandatory Pre-requisite Assignments     United Space School Mandatory Pre-requisite Assignments Page 2  of 13   All assignments must be submitted by the submission date  –   there are NO exceptions! All assignments, except the Personal Introduction, should be sent as PDF only. Submission Dates : Submission of Personal Bio & Math Assignment April 30 & May 16, 2014 Submission of Chemistry Assignment May 30, 2014 Submission of Physics Assignment & Mission Assessment June 13, 2014 Submission of Biology Assignment & Mission Design June 27, 2014 E-mail ALL assignments (or questions) to: The PDF should be named as [AssignmentName_FirstName_LastName.pdf] Note: Many thanks to NASA Education for providing public images & lessons for these assignments. Personal Introduction Assignment:  Due by April 30, 2014. (Completion Only) Make one (1) PowerPoint slide introducing yourself. This will be seen by FISE board members, USS staff, and Host Families. Information to include on this slide should be brief and descriptive. Please avoid very dark colors or graphics and make sure that the text is clear and readable. Be creative, but no animation. Include:   Name   School attending   Favorite subjects   Hobbies and interests   Family information   1 or 2 photos   Country flag Name the file as [FirstName LastName.ppt] Leave in PowerPoint format. Upload the completed document to the designated Google folder:     United Space School Mandatory Pre-requisite Assignments Page 3  of 13   Math Assignment #1: Due by May 16, 2014. (2 marks each question  –  10 marks total). Planning for a Mission to Mars Evaluate two plans for missions to Mars. Calculate each with a crew of eight astronauts. Time to Mars Time on Mars Time Back to Earth Plan 1 150 days 619 days 110 days Plan 2 224 days 30 days 291 days 1. Based on previous experiments in space, we estimate that astronauts may lose on average, 0.28 grams of bone calcium for each day in zero gravity. At this rate how much calcium would each astronaut lose before reaching Mars with each plan (to the nearest gram)? 2. We believe astronauts may regain calcium while they are on Mars (in 1/3 gravity), but we don't know the rate. For each plan, how much calcium would they have to regain each day to have recovered all of their calcium by the time they leave Mars (to the nearest thousandths of a gram)? 3. We have to bring all the life-support supplies for each astronaut. Each astronaut needs 60 pounds of supplies per day. How many kilograms of these supplies would we need to lift for each plan? 4. It currently costs about $6.60 (U.S. dollars) for each gram that must be lifted off of Earth. What would the cost be for carrying the supplies for each plan? 5. By recycling, we could reduce the amount of food, water and oxygen to 18 percent of the amount that otherwise would be required. With recycling, what would be the cost for lifting supplies for each plan? Math Assignment #2: Due by May 16, 2014. (2 marks each question  –  10 marks total). The Mathematics of Ion Rocket Engines Believe it or not, NASA has been using ion engines for decades and many commercial satellites use them too! The operating principle is simple. Heavy atoms such as cesium and xenon are ionized, accelerated through a high-voltage grid, and ejected out the back of the thruster. The momentum of the ejected heavy atoms, when multiplied by the trillions of atoms in the beam, produces a steady, constant thrust that can be maintained for years at a time. Because of the high speed of the atoms very little mass is needed to generate a large thrust over time. For the Dawn spacecraft launched in 2007, the 'fuel' mass is only 425 kilograms, but ejected steadily for 8 years, the 1,200 kilogram satellite will reach a speed of over 36,000 km/hour (22,300 miles/hour). This is equal to 315 million kilometers/year or the distance to the sun and back from Earth! Here is some of the mathematics, in a highly simplified form that will take you through the basic ideas behind these exciting rocket technologies! 1. Charged particles gain speed in an electric field - The kinetic energy of a particle is given by K.E. = 1/2 mv 2 . The energy a charged particle gains from falling through a potential difference of V volts is given by E = qV. The NSTAR ion engine developed for the Deep Space 1 satellite uses xenon atoms with a mass of 2.2 x 10-25 kg, and a charge of q = 1.6 x 10-19 coulombs. What will be the speed of the atom, in kilometers/hour, if the voltage grid of the ion engine is 1,300 volts?    United Space School Mandatory Pre-requisite Assignments Page 4  of 13   2. The smaller the grid separation, the higher the acceleration - The NSTAR engine has a grid separation of 0.7 mm. From your answer to Problem 1, A) what is the average acceleration of the ions as the leave the grid? B) What is the force they experience, in Newtons? 3. The thrust depends on particle flow rate - How many particles have to be ejected in the time it takes to cross the grid, to create a thrust of 0.90 Newtons? (Express the answer in particles per second). 4. Charged particle flows produce electrical currents - If each particle carries exactly one unit of charge, and 1 Ampere = 6.25 x 1018 particles/sec, what is the current needed in the beam to give the thrust in Problem 3? 5. Currents require power to maintain them - What is the beam power, in watts, defined by Power = Voltage x Amperage?
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