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  UPSC Exams Details : UPSC SYLLABUS AND TIPS FOR INDIAN CIVIL SERVICES Physics - Physics Pape ISecti! #A 1. Classical Mechanics(a) Particle dynamicsCentre of mass and laboratory coordinates, conservation of linear and angular momentum. The rocket euation. !utherford scattering, alilean transformation, intertial and non-inertial frames, rotating frames, centrifugal and Coriolis forces, #oucault $endulum.(b) %ystem of $articlesConstraints, degrees of freedom, generalised coordinates and momenta. &agrange's euation and a$$lications to linear harmonic oscillator, sim$le $endulum and central force $roblems. Cyclic coordinates, amilitonian &agrange's euation from amilton's $rinci$le.(c) !igid body dynamicsulerian angles, inertia tensor, $rinci$al moments of inertia. uler's euation of motion of a rigid body, force-free motion of a rigid body. yrosco$e.*. %$ecial !elativity, +aves  eometrical $tics(a) %$ecial !elativityMichelson-Morley e$eriment and its im$lications. &orent/ transformations-length contraction, time dilation, addition of velocities, aberration and 0o$$ler effect, mass-energy relation, sim$le a$$lications to a decay $rocess. Minkoski diagram, four dimensional momentum vector. Covariance of euations of $hysics.(b) +aves%im$le harmonic motion, dam$ed oscillation, forced oscillation and resonance. 2eats. %tationary aves in a string. Pulses and ave $ackets. Phase and grou$ velocities. !eflection and !efraction from uygens' $rinci$le.(c) eometrical $tics&as of relfection and refraction from #ermat's $rinci$le. Matri method in $araial o$tic-thin lens formula, nodal $lanes, system of to thin lenses, chromatic and s$herical aberrations.3. Physical $tics(a) 4nterference4nterference of light-5oung's e$eriment, 6eton's rings, interference by thin films, Michelson interferometer.Multi$le beam interference and #abry-Perot interferometer. ologra$hy and sim$le a$$lications.(b) 0iffraction#raunhofer diffraction-single slit, double slit, diffraction grating, resolving $oer. #resnel diffraction7 - half-$eriod /ones and /ones $lates. #resnel integrals. 8$$lication of Cornu's s$iral to the analysis of diffraction ata straight edge and by a long narro slit. 0iffraction by a circular a$erture and the 8iry $attern.(c) Polarisation and Modern $ticsProduction and detection of linearly and circularly $olarised light. 0ouble refraction, uarter ave $late.  $tical activity. Princi$les of fibre o$tics attenuation9 $ulse dis$ersion in ste$ inde and $arabolic inde fibres9 material dis$ersion, single mode fibres. &asers-instein 8 and 2 coefficients. !uby and e-6e lasers.Characteristics of laser light-s$atial and tem$oral coherence. #ocussing of laser beams. Three-level schemefor laser o$eration. Secti! #B :. lectricity and Magnetism(a) lectrostatics and Magnetostatics&a$lace ad Poisson euations in electrostatics and their a$$lications. nergy of a system of charges, multi$ole e$ansion of scalar $otential. Method of images and its a$$lications. Potential and field due to a di$ole, force and torue on a di$ole in an eternal field. 0ielectrics, $olarisation. %olutions to bounary-value $roblems-conducting and dielectric s$heres in a uniform electric field. Magentic shell, uniformly magnetised s$here. #erromagnetic materials, hysteresis, energy loss.(b) Current lectricity;irchhoff's las and their a$$lications. 2iot-%avart la, 8m$ere's la, #araday's la, &en/' la. %elf-and mutual-inductances. Mean and rms values in 8C circuits. &! C! and &C! circuits- series and $arallel resonance. <uality factor. Princi$al of transformer.=. lectromagnetic Theory  2lack 2ody !adiation(a) lectromagnetic Theory0is$lacement current and Maell's euatons. +ave euations in vacuum, Poynting theorem. >ector and scalar $otentials. auge invariance, &orent/ and Coulomb gauges. lectromagnetic field tensor, covariance of Maell's euations. +ave euations in isotro$ic dielectrics, reflection and refraction at the boundary of to dielectrics. #resnel's relations. 6ormal and anomalous dis$ersion. !ayleigh scattering.(b) 2lackbody radiation2alckbody radiation ad Planck radiation la- %tefan-2olt/mann la, +ien dis$lacement la and !ayleigh-?eans la. Planck mass, Planck length, Planck time,. Planck tem$erature and Planck energy.@. Thermal and %tatistical Physics(a) Thremodynamics&as of thermodynamics, reversible and irreversible $rocesses, entro$y. 4sothermal, adiabatic, isobaric, isochoric $rocesses and entro$y change. tto and 0iesel engines, ibbs' $hase rule and chemical $otential.van der +aals euation of state of a real gas, critical constants. Maell-2olt/man distribution of molecular velocities, trans$ort $henomena, eui$artition and virial theorems. 0ulong-Petit, instein, and 0ebye's theories of s$ecific heat of solids. Maell lllrelations and a$$lications. Clausius- Cla$eyron euation.  8diabatic demagnetisation, ?oule-;elvin effect and liuefaction of gases.(b) %tatistical Physics%aha ioni/ation formula. 2ose-instein condenssation. Thermodynamic behaviour of an ideal #ermi gas, Chandrasekhar limit, elementary ideas about neutron stars and $ulsars. 2ronian motion as a random alk,diffusion $rocess. Conce$t of negative tem$eratures. Pape#IISecti! #A 1. <uantum Mechanics 4+ave-$article dualitiy. %chroedinger euation and e$ectation values. Ancertainty $rinci$le. %olutions of the one-dimensional %chroedinger euation free $article ( aussian ave-$acket), $article in a bo, $article in a finite ell, linear harmonic oscillator. !eflection and transmission by a $otential ste$ and by a rectangular  barrier. Ase of +;2 formula for the life-time calcuation in the al$ha-decay $roblem.*. <uantum Mechanics 44  8tomic Physics(a) <uantum Mechanics 44Particle in a three dimensional bo, density of states, free electron theory of metals. The angular meomentum $roblem. The hydrogen atom. The s$in half $roblem and $ro$erties of Pauli s$in matrices.(b) 8tomic Physics%tern- erlack e$eriment, electron s$in, fine structure of hydrogen atom. &-% cou$ling, ?-? cou$ling. %$ectrosco$ic notation of atomic states. Beeman effect. #rank-Condon $rinci$le and a$$lications.3. Molecular Physicslementary theory of rotational, vibratonal and electronic s$ectra of diatomic molecules. !aman effect and molecular structure. &aser !aman s$ectrosco$y 4m$ortance of neutral hydrogen atom, molecular hydrogen and molecular hydrogen ion in astronomy #luorescence and Phos$horescence. lementary theory and a$$lications of 6M!. lementary ideas about &amb shift and its significance. Secti! #B :. 6uclear Physics2asic nuclear $ro$erties-si/e, binding energy, angular momentum, $arity, magnetic moment. %emi-em$irical mass formula and a$$lications. Mass $arabolas. round state of a deuteron magnetic moment and non-central forces. Meson theory of nuclear forces. %alient features of nuclear forces. %hell model of the nucleus-success and limitations. >iolation of $arity in beta decay. amma decay and internal conversion. lementary ideas about Mossbauer s$ectrosco$y. <-value of nuclear reactions. 6uclear fission and fusion, energy $roduction in stars. 6uclear reactors.=. Particle Physics  %olid %tate Physics(a) Particle PhysicsClassification of elementary $articles and their interactions. Conservation las. <uark structure of hadrons. #ield uanta of electroeak and strong interactions. lementary ideas about Anification of #orces. Physics of neutrinos.(b) %olid %tate PhysicsCubic crystal structure. 2and theory of solids- conductors, insulators and semiconductors. lements of su$erconductivity, Meissner effect, ?ose$hson unctions and a$$lications. lementary ideas about high tem$erature su$erconductivity.@. lectronics4ntrinsic and etrinsic semiconductors-$-n-$ and n-$-n transistors.8m$lifiers and oscillators. $-am$s. #T, ?#T and M%#T. 0igital electronics-2oolean identities, 0e9 Morgan's las, &ogic gates and truth tables., %im$le logic circuits. Thermistors, solar cells. #undamentals of micro$rocessors and digital com$uters. $e eal E %lish - eneral nglish Candidates ill be reuired to rite an essay in nglish. ther uestions ill be designed totest their understanding of nglish and orkmanlike use of ords. Passages ill usually be set for summary or $recis. &athematics Sylla'(s - &athematics Pape#I Secti! #A  &inear 8lgebra>ector, s$ace, linear de$endance and inde$endance, subs$aces, bases, dimensions. #inite dimensional vector s$aces.Matrices, Cayley-amiliton theorem, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, matri of linear transformation, ro and column reduction, chelon form, eivalence, congruences and similarity, reduction to cannonical form, rank, orthogonal, symmetrical, ske symmetrical, unitary, hermitian, ske-hermitian formsDtheir eigenvalues. rthogonal and unitary reduction of uadratic and hermitian forms, $ositive definite uardratic forms. Calc(l(s !eal numbers, limits, continuity, differerentiability, mean-value theorems, Taylor's theorem ith remainders, indeterminate forms, maimas and minima, asy$totes. #unctions of several variables7 continuity, differentiability, $artial derivatives, maima and minima, &agrange's method of multi$liers, ?acobian. !iemann's definition of definite integrals, indefinite integrals, infinite and im$ro$er intergrals, beta and gamma functions. 0ouble and tri$le integrals (evaluation techniues only). 8reas, surface and volumes, centre of gravity. 8nalytic eometry 7Cartesian and $olar coordinates in to and three dimesnions, second degree euations in to and three dimensions, reduction to cannonical forms, straight lines, shortest distance beteen to ske lines, $lane, s$here, cone, cylinder., $araboloid, elli$soid, hy$erboloid of one and to sheets and their $ro$erties. Secti! #B rdinary 0ifferential uations 7#ormulation of differential euations, order and degree, euations of first order and first degree, integrating factor, euations of first order but not of first degree, Clariaut's euation, singular solution.igher order linear euations, ith constant coefficients, com$lementary function and $articular integral, general solution, uler-Cauchy euation.%econd order linear euations ith variable coefficients, determination of com$lete solution hen one solution is knon, method of variation of $arameters.0ynamics, %tatics and ydrostatics 70egree of freedom and constraints, rectilinerar motion, sim$le harmonic motion, motion in a $lane, $roectiles, constrained motion, ork and energy, conservation of energy, motion under im$ulsive forces, ;e$ler's las, orbits under central forces, motion of varying mass, motion under resistance.uilibrium of a system of $articles, ork and $otential energy, friction, common catenary, $rinci$le of virtual ork, stability of euilibrium, euilibrium of forces in three dimensions. Pressure of heavy fluids, euilibrium of fluids under given system of forces 2ernoulli's euation, centre of $ressure, thrust on curved surfaces, euilibrium of floating bodies, stability of euilibrium, metacentre, $ressure of gases.>ector 8nalysis 7%calar and vector fields, tri$le, $roducts, differentiation of vector function of a scalar variable, radient, divergence and curl in cartesian, cylindrical and s$herical coordinates and their $hysical inter$retations. igher order derivatives, vector identities and vector uations. 8$$lication to eometry7 Curves in s$ace, curvature and torision. %erret-#renet's formulae, auss and %tokes' theorems, reen's identities. Pape#IISecti! #A  8lgebra7 rou$s, subgrou$s, normal subgrou$s, homomor$hism of grou$s uotient grou$s basic isomoro$hism theorems, %ylo's grou$, $ermutation grou$s, Cayley theorem. !ings and ideals, $rinci$al ideal domains,
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