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Vector-based metagenomics for animal virus surveillance

Vector-based metagenomics for animal virus surveillance
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  e378 14th International Congress on Infectious Diseases (ICID) Abstractsveterinary, medical, public health and socio-economics pro-fessionals to represent interaction between the disciplinesat all stages of planning, surveillance and response to HPAI,e.g. outbreak investigation teams included individuals fromboth disciplines, trace back and contact tracing consideredinter-species virus transmission, etc. Adult education spe-cialists worked with the STOP AI technical team membersto create clear messages and mechanisms to convey theinformation. Results:  The integrated STOP AI modules have repeatedlybeen field-tested with mixed groups of human and veteri-nary medical practitioners throughout sub-Saharan Africa.STOP AI monitored group response and uptake, and assessedcomprehension of the new materials through observationand written evaluations. An integrated core curriculum onHPAIisbeingfinalizedwhichtheUniversityofGhana’sSchoolof Public Health plans to offer as a Master’s degree courseelective in the spring of 2010. Conclusion:  The zoonotic nature of emerging diseaseshas brought the medical and veterinary communities intocloser working relationships, but with limited impact ontheir respective training activities. The STOP AI project inAfrica is a leading example of the type of innovative trainingprograms needed to better prepare public health and veteri-nary practitioners to address emerging infectious diseases.doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2010.02.460 76.017Vector-based metagenomics for animal virus surveillance T.F.F. Ng 1 , ∗ , D. Willner 2 , C. Nilsson 3 , Y.W. Lim 2 , R.Schmieder 2 , B. Chau 2 , Y. Ruan 3 , F. Rohwer 2 , M. Breitbart 11 Univeristy of South Florida, Saint Petersburg, FL, USA 2 San Diego State Univeristy, San Diego, CA, USA 3 Genome Institute of Singapore, Singapore, SingaporeBackground:  Recent epidemics have underscored theimportance of non-human viral reservoirs and the devas-tating impact of emerging viruses on human health. Broadunderstanding of the animal viruses circulating in a givenregion is crucial for monitoring emerging diseases, but ishindered by the inability to sample enough individuals andby the difficulty of characterizing previously undescribedviruses. As mosquitoes draw blood from animals and humansand are known to carry a number of viruses, metage-nomic sequencing of viral particles purified from mosquitoesenables surveillance of the animal viruses circulating in agiven region. Methods:  To characterize actively circulating virusesand provide a baseline for detection of emerging viruses,viral metagenomics was performed on mosquitoes capturedfrom San Diego, California. Virus particles were purifiedfrom mosquitoes through filtration, chloroform, and nucle-ase treatment. Nucleic acids were then extracted fromthe purified viral particles, and subjected to metagenomicsequencing followed by bioinformatic analysis. Results:  This study identified a number of previouslyunknown DNA and RNA viruses from the mosquito virome.Highly diverse novel single-stranded DNA viruses were dis-covered, with limited amino acid identity (40-63%) to knownhuman anellovirus and animal circovirus genomes in Gen-bank. One of the circoviruses showed a unique genomicorganization with characteristics of several ssDNA viraltypes. Several closely related virus genomes were recoveredfrom individual samples; however, viruses from differentsamples varied widely, indicating distinct virus profiles. Anumber of partial sequences from novel RNA animal viruseswere also identified. New RNA viruses characterized fromthe mosquitoes had only extremely limited amino acid iden-tity to members of the  Bunyaviridae  and  Rhabdoviridae families. Conclusion:  In summary, this study has identified adiversity of novel DNA and RNA viruses, successfully demon-strating that numerous unknown viral species are circulatingin mosquitoes. Through the use of vector-based viralmetagenomics, the animal viruses present in a given regioncan be characterized and used as a baseline to monitoremerging viruses of relevance to human and animal health.doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2010.02.461 76.018Epidemiological, clinical and zoonotic evidences for theexistence of Lyme disease in Central of Mexico G. Gordillo 1 , ∗ , F. Solorzano Santos 2 , J. Torres 3 , E.Velazquez 2 , G. Ramon 2 , R. Garcia 2 , M. Vargas 41 Instituto Mexicano Del Seguro Social, Mexico City, Mexico 2 Hospital de pediatria, Centro Medico Nacional SXXI, IMSS,Mexico, DISTRITO FEDERAL, Mexico 3 Hospital De Pediatria Centro Medico Nacional Sxxi, Imss,Mexico, Distrito Federal, Mexico 4 Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Mexico,Michoacan, MexicoBackground:  Lyme borreliosis, caused by  Borreliaburgdorferi , is the most commonly reported vector-bornedisease in the United States. Infection is transmitted tohumans by  Ixodes  tick-bite, and causes a disease affectingskin, nervous system, heart, and joints. Recent studies inMexico documented cutaneous clinical cases infected with B. burgdorferi  and ticks from the Northeast of the countryinfected with  B. burgdorferi  sensu stricto.  Aim:  To document Borrelia infection in patients with sug-gestive Lyme disease in Central of Mexico, and to search forthe presence of   B. burgdorferi -infected competent vectorsand reservoirs. Methods:  We studied 800 patients suggestive of Lymedisease in one Pediatric and one General hospital. Sera,biopsies, and cerebrospinal fluids were tested for infectionusing immunological, microbiological, and molecular test.Ticksandmicewerecollectedinforestareas,whichpatientsvisited,andinfectionstudiedbycultureandmoleculartests. MEXICAN PATIENT WITH EM.
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