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Vocab

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List of Linking Words and supportive Vocabulary
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  General explaining 1. In order toUsage: “In order to” can be used to introduce an explanation for the purpose of an argument.Example: “In order to understand X, we need first to understand .”!. In other wordsExample: “ rogs are amphibians. In other words, the# li$e on the land and in the water.”%. &o put it another wa#Example: “'lants rel# on photos#nthesis. &o put it another wa#, the# will die without the sun.”(. &hat is to sa#Usage: “&hat is” and “that is to sa#” can be used to add further detail to #our explanation, or to be more precise.Example: “)hales are mammals. &hat is to sa#, the# must breathe air.”*. &o that endUsage: Use “to that end” or “to this end” in a similar wa# to “in order to” or “so”. Adding additional information to support a point +. oreo$er Usage: Emplo# “moreo$er” at the start of a sentence to add extra information in support of a point #ou-re maing.Example: “oreo$er, the results of a recent piece of research pro$ide compelling e$idence in support of/”0. urthermoreUsage: Use “in other words” when #ou want to express something in a different wa# more simpl#2, to mae it easier to understand, or to emphasise or expand on a point.Usage: &his phrase is another wa# of sa#ing “in other words”, and can be used in particularl# complex points, when #ou feel that an alternati$e wa# of wording a problem ma# help the reader achie$e a better understanding of its significance.Example: “3oologists ha$e long sought to understand how animals communicate with each other. &o that end, a new stud# has been launched that loos at elephant sounds and their possible meanings.”  Usage:&his is also generall# used at the start of a sentence, to add extra information.Example: “ urthermore, there is e$idence to suggest that/”4. )hat-s moreUsage: &his is used in the same wa# as “moreo$er” and “furthermore”.Example: “)hat-s more, this isn-t the onl# e$idence that supports this h#pothesis.”5. 6iewiseUsage: Use “liewise” when #ou want to tal about something that agrees with what #ou-$e 7ust mentioned.Example: “8cholar 9 belie$es X. 6iewise, 8cholar  argues compellingl# in fa$our of this point of $iew.”1;. 8imilarl#Usage: Use “similarl#” in the same wa# as “liewise”.11. 9nother e# thing to remember Usage: Use the phrase “another e# point to remember” or “another e# fact to remember” to introduce additional facts without using the word “also”.1!. 9s well asUsage: Use “as well as” instead of “also” or “and”.Example: “8cholar 9 argued that this was due to X, as well as .”1%. <ot onl#/ but alsoExample: “9udiences at the time reacted with shoc to eetho$en-s new wor, because it was $er# different to what the# were used to. 8imilarl#, we ha$e a tendenc# to react with surprise to the unfamiliar.”Example: “9s a =omantic, lae was a proponent of a closer relationship between humans and nature. 9nother e# point to remember is that lae was writing during the Industrial =e$olution, which had a ma7or impact on the world around him.”Usage: &his wording is used to add an extra piece of information, often something that-s in some wa# more surprising or unexpected than the first piece of information.Example: “<ot onl# did Edmund >illar# ha$e the honour of being the first to reach the summit of E$erest, but he was also appointed ?night @ommander of the Arder of the ritish Empire.”  1(. @oupled withUsage: Used when considering two or more arguments at a time.Example: “@oupled with the literar# e$idence, the statistics paint a compelling $iew of/”1*. irstl#, secondl#, thirdl#/Usage: &his can be used to structure an argument, presenting facts clearl# one after the other.Example: “&here are man# points in support of this $iew. irstl#, X. 8econdl#, . 9nd thirdl#, 3.1+. <ot to mentionBto sa# nothing of Usage: “<ot to mention” and “to sa# nothing of” can be used to add extra information with a bit of emphasis.Example: “&he war caused unprecedented suffering to millions of people, not to mention its impact on the countr#-s econom#.” Words and phrases for demonstrating contrast 10. >owe$er Usage: Use “howe$er” to introduce a point that disagrees with what #ou-$e 7ust said.Example: “8cholar 9 thins this. >owe$er, 8cholar  reached a different conclusion.”14. An the other hand15. >a$ing said thatUsage: Used in a similar manner to “on the other hand” or “but”.!;. # contrastBin comparisonUsage: Use “b# contrast” or “in comparison” when #ou-re comparing and contrasting pieces of e$idence.Example: “8cholar 9-s opinion, then, is based on insufficient e$idence. # contrast, 8cholar -s opinion seems more plausible.”Usage: Usage of this phrase includes introducing a contrasting interpretation of the same piece of e$idence, a different piece of e$idence that suggests something else, or an opposing opinion.Example: “&he historical e$idence appears to suggest a clearCcut situation. An the other hand, the archaeological e$idence presents a somewhat less straightforward picture of what happened that da#.”Example: “&he historians are unanimous in telling us X, an agreement that suggests that this $ersion of e$ents must be an accurate account. >a$ing said that, the archaeolog# tells a different stor#.”  !1. &hen againUsage: Use this to cast doubt on an assertion.Example: “)riter 9 asserts that this was the reason for what happened. &hen again, it-s possible that he was being paid to sa# this.”!!. &hat saidUsage: &his is used in the same wa# as “then again”.Example: “&he e$idence ostensibl# appears to point to this conclusion. &hat said, much of the e$idence is unreliable at best.”!%. etUsage: Use this when #ou want to introduce a contrasting idea.Example: “uch of scholarship has focused on this e$idence. et not e$er#one agrees that this is the most important aspect of the situation.”9dding a pro$iso or acnowledging reser$ations8ometimes, #ou ma# need to acnowledge a shortfalling in a piece of e$idence, or add a pro$iso. >ere are some wa#s of doing so.!(. Despite thisUsage: Use “despite this” or “in spite of this” when #ou want to outline a point that stands regardless of a shortfalling in the e$idence.Example: “&he sample sie was small, but the results were important despite this.”!*. )ith this in mindUsage: Use this when #ou want #our reader to consider a point in the nowledge of something else.!+. 'ro$ided thatUsage: &his means “on condition that”. ou can also sa# “pro$iding that” or 7ust “pro$iding” to mean the same thing.Example: “)e ma# use this as e$idence to support our argument, pro$ided that we bear in mind the limitations of the methods used to obtain it.”!0. In $iew ofBin light of Usage: &hese phrases are used when something has shed light on something else.Example: “)e-$e seen that the methods used in the 15th centur# stud# did not alwa#s li$e up to the rigorous standards expected in scientific research toda#, which maes it difficult to draw definite conclusions. )ith this in mind, let-s loo at a more recent stud# to see how the results compare.”
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