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Waste disposal /odlaganje opasnog otpada

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  A Guide for Small Businesses United States Environmental Protection Agency 1EPA  Solid Waste andEmergency Response(5305W)EPA530-K-01-005December 2001www.epa.gov/osw HazardousWaste Managing Your  ii 1INTRODUCTION2DECIDING WHETHER HAZARDOUS WASTE REGULATIONS APPLY TO YOU 2Defining Hazardous Waste3Identifying Your Waste3Finding Your Generator Category  7OVERVIEW OF REQUIREMENTS FOR CONDITIONALLY EXEMPT SMALL QUANTITY GENERATORS8OBTAINING AN EPA IDENTIFICATION NUMBER11MANAGING HAZARDOUS WASTE ON SITE 11Accumulating Your Waste13Treating Your Waste To Meet the Land Disposal Restrictions13Preventing Accidents14Responding to Emergencies 16SHIPPING WASTE OFF SITE 16Selecting a Treatment,Storage,and Disposal Facility 16Labeling Waste Shipments17Preparing Hazardous Waste Manifests17Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) Reporting Requirements18Export Notification18Closure 21SUMMARY OF REQUIREMENTS FOR LARGE QUANTITY GENERATORS22WHERE TO GET MORE HELP 22EPA and Other Federal Resource Centers24EPA Regional Offices 26ACRONYMS AND DEFINITIONS CONTENTS  D oes your business generatehazardous waste? Many smallbusinesses do. If you need helpunderstanding which federal haz-ardous waste management regula-tions apply to your business,thishandbook is for you. It has beenprepared by the U.S. Environmen-tal Protection Agency (EPA) to helpsmall-business owners and opera-tors understand how best to com-ply with federal hazardous wastemanagement regulations.This handbook provides anoverview of the regulations to giveyou a basic understanding of yourresponsibilities. It should not beused as a substitute for the actualrequirements. All of the federalhazardous waste regulations arelocated in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR),Parts260 to 299 (www.epa.gov/epacfr40).EPA defines three categories of hazardous waste generators basedupon the quantity of hazardouswaste they generate per month:(1)Conditionally exempt smallquantity generators (CESQGs),which generate less than 220lbs (100 kg) per month.(2)Small quantity generators(SQGs),which generatebetween 220 lbs (100 kg) and2,200 lbs (1,000 kg) permonth.(3)Large quantity generators(LQGs),which generate morethan 2,200 lbs (1,000 kg) permonth.Each category of generator mustcomply with the hazardous wasterules specific to that category. Thishandbook is intended primarily forbusinesses that generate a smallquantity of hazardous waste (SQGsand CESQGs) to help them learnabout regulations that apply tothem.This handbook explains only the federal requirements for hazardouswaste management. Many  states have their own hazardous wasteregulations based on the federalhazardous waste regulations. Insome of these states,the require-ments are the same as the federalstandards and definitions. Otherstates,however,have developedmore stringent requirements thanthe federal program. If this is thecase in your state,you must com-ply with the state regulations. Tobecome familiar with your state’srequirements,consult your statehazardous waste agency. For theaddress or phone number for yourstate agency,contact the RCRACall Center at 800 424-9346 orTDD 800 553-7672. INTRODUCTION Y ou can look up unfamiliarwords,phrases,oracronyms in the list of defini-tions found on page 26. TIP If you have questions about any part of thisbook,or the federal hazardous waste regula-tions,contact the RCRA Call Center at 703 412-9810 or TDD 703 412-3323 in theWashington,DC,area or at 800 424-9346 orTDD 800 533-7672 from other locations,or<www.epa.gov/epaoswer/hotline>.The Call Center provides free technical assis-tance. Any information you share will not beused for any other purpose. FOR MORE INFORMATION 1  DECIDING WHETHER HAZARDOUS WASTE REGULATIONS APPLY TO YOU Defining Hazardous Waste A waste is any solid,liquid,or con-tained gaseous material that isdiscarded by being disposed of,burned or incinerated,or recycled.(There are some exceptions for recy-cled materials.) It can be the by-product of a manufacturing processor simply a commercial product thatyou use in your business—such asa cleaning fluid or battery acid—andthat is being disposed of. Evenmaterials that are recyclable or canbe reused in some way (such asburning solvents for fuel) might beconsidered waste.Hazardous waste can be one of two types:  Listed waste. Your waste isconsidered hazardous if itappears on one of four listspublished in the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFRPart 261). Currently,morethan 500 wastes are listed.Wastes are listed as haz-ardous because they areknown to be harmful to humanhealth and the environmentwhen not managed properly.Even when managed properly,some listed wastes are sodangerous that they are called acutely hazardous wastes .Examples of acutely haz-ardous wastes include wastesgenerated from some pesti-cides and that can be fatal tohumans even in low doses.  Characteristic wastes. If yourwaste does not appear onone of the hazardous wastelists,it still might beconsidered hazardous if itdemonstrates one or more of the following characteristics:  It catches fire under certainconditions. This is known asan ignitable waste. Examplesare paints and certaindegreasers and solvents.  It corrodes metals or has avery high or low pH. This isknown as a corrosive waste.Examples are rust removers,acid or alkaline cleaning flu-ids,and battery acid.  It is unstable and explodesor produces toxic fumes,gases,and vapors whenmixed with water or underother conditions such asheat or pressure. This isknown as a reactive waste.Examples are certaincyanides or sulfide-bearingwastes.  It is harmful or fatal wheningested or absorbed,or itleaches toxic chemicals intothe soil or ground water whendisposed of on land. This isknown as a toxic waste.Examples are wastes thatcontain high concentrationsof heavy metals,such as cad-mium,lead,or mercury.You can determine if your waste istoxic by having it tested using theToxicity Characteristic Leaching Federal hazardous wastemanagement regulationsapply to most businessesthat generate hazardouswaste. To determine if these regulations apply toyour business,you mustfirst determine if you evengenerate hazardouswaste. Determine if you generate hazardous wastein the first place.Measure the amount of hazardous waste thatyou produce per month.Determine your generator category to learn themanagement requirements that apply to you. 2
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