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Week 4

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materials to objects, there are two parts to these notes
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   Today I experimented with the basic texturing tools within Maya. I discovered when objects are first created an in Maya, the default material is LAMBERT1 is assigned to it. In the attribute Editor, the material can be accessed and adjusted in the material panel. I realised applying materials is important since it determine how surfaces appear. These are assests assembling reflectivity, shininess, transparency and texture of a surface. Materials can be attached onto an object within the workspace by right click holding on the object and selecting ASSIGN NEW MATERIAL on the marking menu. Depending upon the type of Shader is what determines the behaviour of the light. . I discovered in Maya there are other methods of mapping materials materials; each attribute represents a different type of behaviour of a surface and is connected as a new node. These attributes, apart from COLOR, include Bump Map, Specular Map, Transparency Map and Reflectivity Map.  To apply a texture on a particular map attribute, click the checked button to the right of the attribute in the Attribute Editor. Once you apply a map, the button turns to an arrow . Clicking on this arrow allows you to access the setting of the mapping in the lower level(node) of the material. Note: You can access the mapping settings through the Hypershader as well. The Hypershader gives you a graphic representation of the node connections as well (Graph Network). However, it is recommended to stick to the Attribute Editor as the Hypershader can be proven complex and hard to use. 1.1 ADJUSTING THE MAP WITHIN THE MATERIAL Once you created the map, a 2D placement node is created automatically. This means that Maya places automatically the texture on the 3D object and the 2D placement is defined by the place2dTexture panel. This panel can be accessed by clicking the arrow next to the attribute and then the panel will appear in the Attribute Editor. Click on PLACE2DTEXTURE to access it. In this panel, you can adjust basic attributes of the texture placement such as the size of the coverage, the positioning (Translate Frame), rotation (Rotate Frame), tilling (Repeat UV) etc. This is a basic set of settings that you can adjust to optimise the wrapping of the texture on the 3D object.3 2 PROJECTION MAPS So far, we applied materials to objects using the default mapping (Normal mapping). However, it is possible to further control how bitmaps and procedural maps are wrapped around an object. The correct term is ‘projected’ and there are many different ways of projecting a flat 2D bitmap or procedural map onto a 3D surface (Projection mapping). A projection map projects the 2D image onto the 3D geometry. Projection maps allow you to create consistent look on multiple surfaces. Examples of projection mapping To create a projection map: 1. Create a Cylinder and apply any type material to it (e.g. Blinn). 2. Go to the Color attribute and add a map by clicking on the checked button next to it.  3. In the Create Render Node window click on File and select the “Finishes.Flooring.Vinyl.Checker.Black - White.jpg” through the Image Name browser. 4. As you can see the default projection type is not appropriate for the Cylinder. 5. To create a Cylindrical projection type, select the Cylinder and go to CREATE UVs | CYLINDRICAL MAPPING. 6. This will project the texture in a cylindrical manner around the Cylinder. 7. You can see a new type of MANIPULATOR which is the Projection Manipulator. The Projection map manipulator4 Use this manipulator to adjust the projection in position, size and rotation as you’d use any of the other manipulators. The projection types also include Planar, Spherical, Cylindrical, Ball, Cubic, TriPlanar, Concentric and Perspective. 2.1 CO-ORDINATE SYSTEMS To apply a PROJECTION MAP to its full potential you need to understand how the UVW co-ordinate system works. -ordinate system corresponds to the X and Y co-ordinates of the manipulators you are already familiar with. If we take the earth and outer space as an example; earth uses latitude and longitude to describe locations on its surface, while the location of earth in outer space is described using another type of coordinate system. In this analogy, bitmaps, use U and V co- ordinates to describe its surface, while ‘World Space Co - ordinates” are used to describe the position of earth in outer space -ordinate system as in BITMAPS but also a W axis, which corresponds to the Z axis. The terminology ‘UVW’ is common to many 3D Modelling applications, and is used to reduce confusion with the XYZ coordinates system used for 3D space. 3 PROJECTION MAP EXERCISE 1. Repeat the steps above to apply all types of Projection Maps on a Cube. Examine the differences between the “wrapping” methods and the results.  2. Now create a Sphere and a Cylinder and repeat. 3. It is essential you become familiar with the various mapping techniques so that you can select  the most appropriate technique when you are mapping your own models. As practice, use the ‘moth.jpg’ image, and map the image onto the following:  i. A sphere, using CUBIC mapping, can you describe how the image has been mapped onto the sphere? ii. Two spheres, one with SPHERICAL mapping and the other using BALL mapping, can you see the difference? Refer to the online help Note: Projection maps can be applied on the entire object or on selected Faces. This comes very handy when you have complex objects with multiple textures. iii. Now create a cube and apply the “moth.jpg” on the front face only:  1. Create a cube and select the front face. 2. Add a Blinn material to it. 3. Add an image to the Color attribute (moth.jpg). 4. You will notice that it does not appear immediately as we need to apply a PLANAR MAPPING projection. 5. Select CREATE UVs | PLANNAR MAPPING. 6. The moth image now appears on the front face of the Cube. 7. Use the projection manipulator to adjust the position, size or rotation of the texture if required.
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