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Welding Symbols

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  WELD SYMBOLS TABLE OF CONTENTS 3-1. GENERAL......................................................................................................................23-2. PARTS OF A DRAWING................................................................................................23-3. CONSTRUCTION LINES..............................................................................................33-4. GENERAL......................................................................................................................43-5. ELMENTS OF A WELDING SYMBOL........................................................................53-6. BASIC WELD SYMBOLS.............................................................................................63-7. LOCATION SIGNIFICANCE OF ARROW..................................................................93-8. LOCATION OF TE WELD WIT RESPECT TO !OINT........................................1 3-9. REFERENCES AND GENERAL NOTES...................................................................113-1 . WELD-ALL-AROUND AND FIELD WELD SYMBOLS........................................123-11. E#TENT OF WELDING DENOTED BY SYMBOLS..............................................123-12. LOCATION OF WELD SYMBOLS...........................................................................123-13. USE OF INC$ DEGREE$ AND POUND MAR%S..................................................133-14. CONSTRUCTION OF SYMBOLS............................................................................133-15. FILLET WELDS.........................................................................................................153-16. SI&E OF FILLET WELDS.........................................................................................163-17. LENGT OF FILLET WELDS..................................................................................163-18. E#TENT OF FILLET WELDING..............................................................................173-19. DIMENSIONING OF INTERMITTENT FILLET WELDING.................................173-2 . TERMINATION OF INTERMITTENT FILLET WELDING....................................183-21. SURFACE CONTOUR OF FILLET WELDS............................................................193-22. PLUG AND SLOT WELDING SYMBOLS...............................................................193-23. ARC SPOT AND ARC SEAM WELDS.....................................................................213-24. GROO'E WELDS......................................................................................................233-25. BAC% OR BAC%ING WELDS.................................................................................273-26. MELT-TRU WELDS................................................................................................273-27. SURFACING WELDS................................................................................................283-28. FLANGE WELDS.......................................................................................................293-29. RESISTANCE SPOT WELDS....................................................................................3 3-3 . RESISTANCE SEAM WELDS..................................................................................323-31. PRO!ECTION WELDS..............................................................................................343-32. FLAS OR UPSET WELDS......................................................................................37  Section I. PRINT READING3-1. GENERAL a. Drawings. Drawing or sketching is a universal language used to convey all necessary information to the individual who will fabricate or assemble an object. Prints are also used to illustrate how various equipment is operated, maintained, repaired, or lubricated. The srcinal drawings for prints are made either by directly drawing or tracing a drawing on a translucent tracing paper or cloth using waterproof (ndia! ink or a special pencil. The srcinal drawing is referred to as a tracing or master copy. b. eproduction #ethods. $arious methods of reproduction have been developed which will produce prints of different colors from the master copy. (%! &ne of the first processes devised to reproduce a tracing produced white lines on a blue background, hence the term 'blueprints'.(! ) patented paper identified as '*+' paper produces prints with black lines on a white background. (! The ammonia process, or '&-alids', produces prints with either black, blue, or maroon lines on a white background.(! $andyke paper produces a white line on a dark brown background.(/! &ther reproduction methods are the mimeograph machine, ditto machine, and photostatic process. 3-2. PARTS OF A DRAWING a. Title *lock. The title block contains the drawing number and all the information required to identify the part or assembly represented. )pproved military prints will include the name and address of the 0overnment )gency or organi-ation preparing the drawing, the scale, the drafting record, authentication, and the date. b. evision *lock. 1ach drawing has a revision block which is usually located in the upper rightcorner. )ll changes to the drawing are noted in this block. 2hanges are dated and identified by a number or letter. f a revision block is not used, a revised drawing may be shown by the addition of a letter to the srcinal number. c. Drawing 3umber. )ll drawings are identified by a drawing number. f a print has more than one sheet and each sheet has the same number, this information is included in the number block, indicating the sheet number and the number of sheets in the series. d. eference 3umbers and Dash 3umbers. eference numbers that appear in the title block refer to other print numbers. +hen more than one detail is shown on a drawing, dashes and numbers are frequently used. f two parts are to be shown in one detail drawing, both prints willhave the same drawing number plus a dash and an individual number such as 454%67% and 454%67.  e. 8cale. The scale of the print is indicated in one of the spaces within the title block. t indicates the si-e of the drawing as compared with the actual si-e of the part. 3ever measure a drawing77use dimensions. The print may have been reduced in si-e from the srcinal drawing. f. *ill of #aterial. ) special block or bo9 on the drawing may contain a list of necessary stock tomake an assembly. t also indicates the type of stock, si-e, and specific amount required. 3-3. CONSTRUCTION LINES a. :ull ;ines (), fig. 7%!. :ull lines represent the visible edges or outlines of an object. b. <idden ;ines (), fig. 7%!. <idden lines are made of short dashes which represent hidden edges of an object. c. 2enter ;ines (*, fig. 7%!. 2enter lines are made with alternating short and long dashes. ) line through the center of an object is called a center line. d. 2utting Plane ;ines (*, fig. 7%!. 2utting plane lines are dashed lines, generally of the same width as the full lines, e9tending through the area being cut. 8hort solid wing lines at each end of the cutting line project at =6 degrees to that line and end in arrowheads which point in the direction of viewing. 2apital letters or numerals are placed just beyond the points of the arrowsto designate the section.  e. Dimension ;ines (), fig. 7%!. Dimension lines are fine full lines ending in arrowheads. They are used to indicate the measured distance between two points. f. 19tension ;ines (), fig. 7%!. 19tension lines are fine lines from the outside edges or intermediate points of a drawn object. They indicate the limits of dimension lines. g. *reak ;ines (2, fig. 7%!. *reak lines are used to show a break in a drawing and are used when it is desired to increase the scale of a drawing of uniform cross section while showing thetrue si-e by dimension lines. There are two kinds of break lines> short break and long break. 8hort break lines are usually heavy, wavy, semiparallel lines cutting off the object outline across a uniform section. ;ong break lines are long dash parallel lines with each long dash in the line connected to the ne9t by a '' or sharp wave line. Section II. WELD AND WELDING SYMBOLS3-. GENERAL +elding cannot take its proper place as an engineering tool unless means are provided for conveying the information from the designer to the workmen. +elding symbols provide the means of placing complete welding information on drawings. The scheme for symbolic representation of welds on engineering drawings used in this manual is consistent with the 'third angle' method of projection. This is the method predominantly used in the ?nited 8tates.The joint is the basis of reference for welding symbols. The reference line of the welding symbol (fig. 7! is used to designate the type of weld to be made, its location, dimensions, e9tent, contour, and other supplementary information. )ny welded joint indicated by a symbol will always have an arrow side and an other side. )ccordingly, the terms arrow side, other side,and both sides are used herein to locate the weld with respect to the joint.
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