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What is a Disability

This is a summary of the types of disabilities and the changes of its terminology..
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  What is a Disability?A disability is a condition or function judged to be significantly impaired relative to the usual standard of an individual or group. The term is used to refer to individual functioning, including physical impairment, sensory impairment, cognitive impairment, intellectual impairment mental illness, and various types of chronic disease.Disability is conceptualized as being a multidimensional experience for the person involved. There may be effects on organs or body parts and there may be effects on a persons participation in areas of life. !orrespondingly, three dimensions of disability are recognized in !#$ body structure and function %and impairment thereof&, activity %and activity restrictions& and participation %and  participation restrictions&. The classification also recognizes the role of physical and social environmental factors in affecting disability outcomes.Types of DisabilitiesTypes of disabilities include various physical and mental impairments that can hamper or reduce a  persons ability to carry out his day to day activities. These impairments can be termed as disability of the person to do his or her day to day activities. These impairments can be termed as disability of the person to do his day to day activities as  previously. 'Disability' can be bro(en do)n into a number of broad sub*categories, )hich include the follo)ing$a& +obility and hysical mpairmentsThis category of disability includes people )ith varying types of physical disabilities including$ -pper limb%s& disability. o)er limb%s& disability +anual dexterity. Disability in co*ordination )ith different organs of the body. Disability in mobility can be either an in*born or ac/uired )ith age problem. t could also be the effectof a disease. eople )ho have a bro(en bone also fall into this category of disability.  b& 0pinal !ord Disability$0pinal cord injury %0! & can sometimes lead to lifelong disabilities. This (ind of injury mostly occurs due to severe accidents. The injury can be either complete or incomplete. n an incomplete injury, the messages conveyed by the spinal cord is not completely lost. Whereas a complete injury results in a total dis*functioning of the sensory organs. n some cases spinal cord disability can be a birth defect.c& 1ead njuries * 2rain DisabilityA disability in the brain occurs due to a brain injury. The magnitude of the brain injury can range from mild, moderate and severe. There are t)o types of brain injuries$ Ac/uired 2rain njury %A2 & Traumatic 2rain njury %T2 & A2 is not a hereditary type defect but is the degeneration that occurs after birth.  The causes of such cases of injury are many and are mainly because of external forces applied to the  body parts. T2 results in emotional dysfunctioning and behavioral disturbance. d& 3ision DisibilityThere are hundreds of thousands of people that suffer from minor to various serious vision disability or impairments. These injuries can also result into some serious problems or diseases li(e blindness and ocular trauma, to name a fe). 0ome of the common vision impairment includes scratched cornea, scratches on the sclera, diabetes related eye conditions, dry eyes and corneal graft. e& 1earing Disability1earing disabilities includes people that are completely or partially deaf, %Deaf is the politically correct term for a person )ith hearing impairment&. eople )ho are partially deaf can often use hearing aids to assist their hearing. Deafness can be evident at birth or occur later in life from several biologic causes, for example +eningitis can damage the auditory nerve or the cochlea. Deaf people use sign language as a means of communication. 1undreds of sign languages are in use around the )orld. n linguistic terms, sign languages are as rich and complex as any oral language, despite the common misconception that they are not 'real languages'. f& !ognitive or earning Disabilites!ognitive Disabilities are (ind of impairment present in people )ho are suffering from dyslexia and various other learning difficulties and includes speech disorders.f& sychological DisordersAffective Disorders$ Disorders of mood or feeling states either short or long term. +ental 1ealth mpairment is the term used to describe people )ho have experienced psychiatric problems or illness such as$ersonality Disorders * Defined as deeply inade/uate patterns of behavior and thought of sufficient severity to cause significant impairment to day*to*day activities.0chizophrenia$ A mental disorder characterized by disturbances of thin(ing, mood, and behavior.h& nvisible Disabilities nvisible Disabilities are disabilities that are not immediately apparent to others. t is estimated that 456 of people in the -.0. have a medical condition considered a type of invisible disability.The 7volution of a +ovement1istorically, disabilities have often been cast in a negative light. An individual thus affected )as seen as being a 8patient9 subject either to cure or to ongoing medical care. 1is condition is seen as disabling: the social reactions to it are justified, and the barriers unavoidable. This position is (no)n as the medical model of disability.;ver the past <5 years, a competing vie) (no)n as the social model of disability has come to the fore. n this model, disability is seen more as a social construction than a medical reality. An individual may be impaired by a condition that re/uires daily living adaptations, but the bul( of his problem * his disability * can be found in the attitudinal and physical barriers erected by society.  2oth the medical and social models agree, to a point, that facilities and opportunities should be made as accessible as possible to individuals )ho re/uire adaptations. Dismantling physical barriers, or setting up adaptations such as )heelchair ramps, is (no)n as 'fostering accessibility'.The anguage and Terminology of DisabilityThe term disability has replaced the older designations spastic, handicapped, and crippled. While theset)o designations can be used interchangeably, proponents of the social model of disability have appropriated the latter term to describe those social and economic conse/uences of the former. An individual )ith a physical or intellectual disability, then, is said to be 'handicapped' by the lo)ered expectations of society.A person may also be 'impaired' either by a correctable condition such as myopia, or by an uncorrectable one such as cerebral palsy. #or those )ith mild conditions, related impairments disappear )ith the application of corrective devices. +ore serious impairments call for adaptive e/uipment. n the -nited =ingdom, people )ithin the disability rights movement commonly use the term 'Disabled' to denote someone )ho is 'disabled by societys inability to accommodate all of its inhabitants.'The erson #irst +ovement has added another layer to this discourse by as(ing that people )ith disabilities be identified first as individuals. 'erson #irst anguage' ** referring, for example, to a 8)oman )ho is blind,9 rather than to 'a blind )oman' * is a form of political correctness designed to further the aims of the social model by removing attitudinal barriers.0ome people )ith disabilities support the erson #irst +ovement, )hile others do not. eople )ho areDeaf in particular may see themselves as members of a specific community, properly called the Deaf culture, and so )ill reject efforts designed to distance them from the central fact of their identity.A human rights based approach has been adopted by many organizations of and for disabled people. n<555, for example, the -nited >ations Assembly decided to start )or(ing on a comprehensive convention for the rights of disabled people.#urther eading$#amous people )ith disabilitiesTips for the >e)ly Disabled1o) to !ope )ith llness or Disability Further Information Regarding Types of Disability 0pinal +uscular Atrophy Types 5 and 40pinal muscular atrophy %0+A& of all types belongs to a group of hereditary diseases that cause )ea(ness and )asting of the voluntary muscles in the arms and legs of infants and children.
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