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Who is socrates?

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Biography of Socrates.
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  Batolina, Jhon Mark R. January 22, 2018 BSED III- Math BIOGRAPHY OF SOCRATES    Socrates was born circa 470 BC, in Athens, Greece. We know of his life through the writings of his students, including Plato and Xenophon. His Socratic method, laid the groundwork for Western systems of logic and philosophy. When the political climate of Greece turned, Socrates was sentenced to death by hemlock poisoning in 399 BC. He accepted this judgment rather than fleeing into exile.Born circa 470 BC in Athens, Greece, Socrates's life is chronicled through only a few sources the dialogues of Plato and Xenophon and the plays of Aristophanes. Because these writings had other purposes than reporting his life, it is likely none present a completely accurate picture. However, collectively, they provide a unique and vivid portrayal of Socrates's philosophy and  personality. Socrates was the son of Sophroniscus, an Athenian stone mason and sculptor, and Phaenarete, a midwife. Because he wasn't from a noble family, he probably received a  basic Greek education and learned his father's craft at a young age. It is believed Socrates worked as mason for many years before he devoted his life to philosophy. Contemporaries differ in their account of how Socrates supported himself as a philosopher. Both Xenophon and Aristophanes state Socrates received payment for teaching, while Plato writes Socrates explicitly denied accepting payment, citing his poverty as proof. Socrates married Xanthippe, a younger woman, who bore him three sons Lamprocles, Sophroniscus and Menexenus. There is little known about her except for Xenophon's characterization of Xanthippe as undesirable. He writes she was not happy with Socrates's second profession and c omplained that he wasn’t supporting family as a philosopher. By his own words, Socrates had little to do with his sons' upbringing and expressed far more interest in the intellectual development of Athens' young boys. Athenian law required all able bodied males serve as citizen soldiers, on call for duty from ages 18 until 60. According to Plato, Socrates served in the armored infantry known as the hoplite with shield, long spear and face mask. He participated in three military campaigns during the Peloponnesian War, at Delium, Amphipolis, and Potidaea, where he saved the life of Alcibiades, a popular Athenian general. Socrates was known for his courage in battle and fearlessness, a trait that stayed with him throughout his life. After his trial, he compared his refusal to retreat from his legal troubles to a soldier's refusal to retreat from battle when threatened with death.  Contribution of Socrates in Philosophy Socrates' Logic of Language Ever and anon we are landed in particulars, but this is not what I want. Tell me then, since you call them by a common name and say that they are all [shapes] ... what is that common nature which you designate as [shape]? What is the quality in which they do not differ, but are all alike?   In Plato's dialogs Socrates is not looking for the conventions for using a common name, e.g. the common name 'shape'. He already knows how we use the word 'shape' -- because he can point to examples of shapes. So that drawing Socrates' attention to what Wittgenstein called family resemblances would not be useful to Socrates because they are not what he is looking for. What Socrates does seek is the common nature that justifies  our use of a common name. For example,  what is the common nature that justifies applying the word 'shape' to all the particular shapes,  because that nature is not evident. What do all shapes have in common? Wittgenstein answer is to ask, what do all games have in common? and to show that there is no one thing. It is a  presumption , of course, that the meaning of a common name is the common nature it names: it is not the result   of investigation -- indeed, Plato's Socrates does not find them; it is instead a requirement   that Plato imposes on his investigations. What would Socrates' logic of language be, then? According to Socrates the 'meaning' of a common name is the unique quality (common nature) shared by all things called by that name, unique because it distinguishes those things from all things called by other names. And we can give a definition of 'meaningless' or 'nonsense' for Socrates, and, further, say that if we cannot define a common-name, then we are not justified to use it Using that name would be an instance of thinking we know what we don't know. And that which we know, we must surely be able to tell? When we cannot tell , then we don't know what we are talking about: our speech is nonsense meaningless sound. That is Socrates' logic of language in ethics. Euthyphro cannot define 'piety' (or 'holiness') when Socrates questions him; he does not know what he is talking about but thinks himself wise when he is not; and therefore lives an unethical life. Socrates and logic and ethics   Note that for the historical Socrates logic is only a tool for investigations in ethics, and so the question to ask is: Why does Socrates want to know what the common nature is that a common name  presumably names?  Because according to Plato's account, knowing that defining common nature would serve as a standard in ethics, saying what the good is for man in any and every particular circumstance. For example, if we know the common nature named by the common name 'piety' -- i.e. if we know what all instances of piety have in common -- then we will always know what is required of the good man.   For Socrates the questions How is a word used? and What justifies the use of the word? are different questions. For Wittgenstein they are the same question. For Wittgenstein our language is just there  like our life is there fact, a way of life for logic to describe not to justify or explain , not a riddle to solve. But for Socrates how we apply our language does stand in need of  justification, and that justification must be given in the form of a Socratic definition: our  justification for applying a common name is our being able to define the name -- not by describing a word's use in our language (or grammar in Wittgenstein's jargon) but by giving an account of the common nature that the common-name names. Socrates' Method in Philosophy (according to Guthrie) The Socratic or dialectical method of inquiry consists of two stages. The first is to collect instances to which both parties to a discussion agree that the name under consideration may be applied, e.g., if it is piety, to collect instances of agreed pious acts. Secondly, the collected instances are examined in order to discover some common quality in them by virtue of which they bear that name. This common quality considered as pious will provide the definition of  piety.  Socrates' definition is not a theory of meaning    Has Socrates a logic of language, a way for distinguishing sense from nonsense language? His thought can be given that form, and we can call it 'Socrates' logic of language'. The reason we can do this is that Socrates' method puts forth not a theory about meaning (as is Plato's Theory of Ideas ) but a definition of the word 'meaning'. Socrates took no interest in metaphysics, but in logic and ethics only Socrates interested himself in ethical matters in Plato's no small matter, but how to live , neglecting the world of Nature, seeking the Universal in the ethical sphere and fixing thought for the first time on ethical definitions Socrates gave no study to the nature of the universe as a whole or, in a word, Socrates created no cosmology; his interest lay in logic and ethics, not in metaphysics. On the other hand, Socrates discoursed about providence , in Xenophon about the providentially designed nature of things. If the precept know thyself commands seeking to identify the specific excellent that is proper to man, isn't that an inquiry about the world of  Nature ? The question is where do we want to set of limits of the concept 'metaphysics'. Aristotle says quite clearly that Socrates was busying himself about ethical matters . And again, Socrates occupied himself with the excellences of character, and in connection with them became the first to raise the problem of universal definitions Socrates' Logic (his contribution according to Aristotle) What was this elementary logic of Socrates'? It was a method, or, right way to the goal Socrates did not claim to have knowledge but only a certain insight into the right way to look for it what mattered was that a method had been found . What was this insight? There are two things which may justly be credited to Socrates, inductive argument and general definition. Aristotle declares that there are two improvements in science which we might justly ascribe to Socrates his employment of inductive arguments and universal definitions Induction, Aristotle tells us, is being led from the observation of particular instances to grasp a general characteristic shared by all the members of a class. The theory of forms (SOCRATES) epistemology The Eidos - Translated as Forms - they are the absolutely real, immaterial blueprints of objects in the physical world They constitute those essential features of all individual objects belonging to the same class - e.g. what all horses have in common that makes them horses or what all acts of  justice have in common that makes them just. ° Also translated as Ideals - Hence Plato 's theory of reality is called Idealism-These are the perfect, unchanging exemplars of all natural kind terms (objects naturally occurring) and all good things -e.g. -The perfect horse tree, dog, or perfect  justice, love, beauty- they the perfect circle or triangle or straight line, etc. The ultimate Eidos - that which all other Eidos have in common is the Form Good also include
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