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Wide Area Monitoring, Protection and Control in Future Great Britain Power System

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WAMS system in Britain
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    WIDE AREA MONITORING, PROTECTION AND CONTROL IN THE FUTURE GREAT BRITAIN POWER SYSTEM A thesis submitted to the University of Manchester For the degree of Doctor of Philosophy In the Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences 2012 By Deyu Cai School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering      Preface - 1 - List of Contents List of Contents ............................................................................................................... 1   List of Figures .................................................................................................................. 4   List of Tables ................................................................................................................. 10   Abstract .......................................................................................................................... 13   List of Abbreviations .................................................................................................... 14   Declaration ..................................................................................................................... 15   Copyright Statement ..................................................................................................... 16   Acknowledgements ........................................................................................................ 18   Chapter 1 Introduction ................................................................................................. 19   1.1 Research Background ........................................................................................... 19   1.1.1 Power system blackouts ................................................................................. 19   1.1.2 Wide area monitoring, protection and control ............................................... 22   1.2 Objectives of the Research .................................................................................... 24   1.3 Thesis Structure ..................................................................................................... 26   1.4 Main Contributions of This Research ................................................................... 28   Chapter 2 Synchronized Measurement Technology .................................................. 29   2.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 29   2.2 Phasor Measurement Unit ..................................................................................... 31   2.3 Data Concentrator ................................................................................................. 34   2.4 Synchrophasor Standard ....................................................................................... 35   2.5 Summary ............................................................................................................... 35   Chapter 3 Applications and Benefits of Synchronized Measurement Technology . 36   3.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 36   3.2 Off-line Applications of SMT ............................................................................... 36   3.2.1 Post-disturbance analysis ............................................................................... 36   3.2.2 Benchmarking, validation and fine-tuning of system models ........................ 38   3.3 On-line Applications of SMT ............................................................................... 39   3.3.1 Wide area phase angular and power flow monitoring ................................... 39   3.3.2 Wide area frequency monitoring .................................................................... 41   2.3.3 Wide area voltage monitoring ........................................................................ 42   3.3.4 Inter-area oscillation monitoring .................................................................... 44   3.3.5 Power system restoration ............................................................................... 45   3.3.6 Improved state estimation .............................................................................. 47   3.3.7 Dynamic rating of overhead transmission lines ............................................. 48   2.3.8Intelligent controlled islanding ....................................................................... 49   2.3.9 Adaptive under-frequency load shedding ...................................................... 50   3.4 Conclusions ........................................................................................................... 51   Chapter 4 Architecture of a WAMPAC System ........................................................ 52   4.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 52   4.2 Architecture of a WAMPAC System .................................................................... 52   4.3 Communication Networks of WAMPAC System ................................................ 55   4.3.1 Available communication media for WAMPAC ........................................... 55   4.3.2 Communication protocols and format for phasor data transmission ............. 57   4.3.3 Communication latency ................................................................................. 59   4.4 Architecture of future GB WAMPAC system ...................................................... 59   4.5 Conclusions ........................................................................................................... 61     Preface - 2- Chapter 5 The Roadmap to the Future GB WAMPAC System ............................... 62   5.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 62   5.2 The Roadmap to a WAMPAC System ................................................................. 63   5.3 The Future GB Power System .............................................................................. 65   5.4 GB’s strategy for WAMPAC ................................................................................ 68   5.4.1 Short term strategy ......................................................................................... 68   5.4.2 Long term strategy ......................................................................................... 71   5.5 Conclusions ........................................................................................................... 81   Chapter 6 The Physical Nature of Inter-area Oscillations in Electrical Power Systems ........................................................................................................................... 82   6.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 82   6.2 Nonlinear Simulations ........................................................................................... 82   6.2.1 Local oscillatory mode in Area 1 ................................................................... 83   6.2.2 Local oscillatory mode in Area 2 ................................................................... 84   6.2.3 Inter-area oscillatory mode ............................................................................ 85   6.2.4 Large disturbance ........................................................................................... 87   6.3 Modal Analysis ..................................................................................................... 88   6.3.1 Dynamic system representation ..................................................................... 89   6.3.2 System linearization for modal analysis ........................................................ 90   6.3.3 Eigenvalues and eigenvectors ........................................................................ 92   6.3.4 Eigenvalues and small signal stability ........................................................... 93   6.3.5 Participation factors ....................................................................................... 94   6.3.6 Modal analysis for inter-area oscillation study .............................................. 95   6.4 The srcin of lightly damped/unstable inter-area oscillations ............................ 100   6.5 Conclusions ......................................................................................................... 102   Chapter 7 Inter-area Oscillation Monitoring Using Newton-Type Algorithm ..... 104   7. 1 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 104   7.2 Signal Model Representation .............................................................................. 105   7.3 Newton Type Algorithm Derivation ................................................................... 108   7.4 Computer Simulated Tests .................................................................................. 110   7.4.1 Static tests .................................................................................................... 111   7.4.2 Noise tests .................................................................................................... 113   7.4.3 Dynamic tests ............................................................................................... 116   7.5 Dynamic Simulation of a Multi-machine System ............................................... 118   7.6 Real-life Conditions Tests ................................................................................... 122   7.7 Conclusions ......................................................................................................... 124   Chapter 8 The Application of Power Electronic Devices for Damping Inter-area oscillations .................................................................................................................... 126   8.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 126   8.2 Modal Analysis for Control ................................................................................ 127   8.2.1 Transfer functions ........................................................................................ 127   8.2.2 Residue based damping controller design .................................................... 128   8.3 Inter-area Oscillation Damping Control with HVDC ......................................... 131   8.3.1 HVDC transmission system modelling ........................................................ 132   8.3.2 System performance without HVDC damping controller ............................ 139   8.3.3 Residue based HVDC damping controller design ....................................... 140   8.3.4 System performance with a HVDC damping controller .............................. 143   8.4 Inter-area Oscillation Control with TCSC .......................................................... 146   8.4.1 TCSC modelling .......................................................................................... 146  

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