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Assignment on Smithy shop Submitted to Eng Amir Sultan Submitted by Sajawal Akram Roll no 2k13-che-115 Subject Workshop Group Delta Session 2013-2017 NFC Institute of Engineering and Technology Multan Smithy shop Introduction A place in which metal, usually iron or steel, is worked by heating and hammering is called Smithy shop. For manufacturing various types of machine tools and equipments, different processes are adopted.raw material is converted into useful products when wor
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    Assignment on Smithy shop Submitted to Eng Amir Sultan Submitted by Sajawal Akram Roll no 2k13-che-115 Subject Workshop Group Delta Session 2013-2017 NFC Institute of Engineering and Technology Multan    Smithy shop Introduction A place in which metal, usually iron or steel, is worked by heating and hammering is   called Smithy shop. For manufacturing various types of machine tools and equipments, different processes are adopted.raw material is converted into useful products when worked upon in plastic state. Smithy shop tools: Anvil An anvil  is a basic tool, a block with a hard surface on which another object is struck. The block is as massive as it is practical, because the higher the inertia of the anvil, the more efficiently it causes the energy of the striking tool to be transferred to the work piece. In most cases the anvil is used as a forging tool. Before the advent of modern welding technology, it   was a primary tool of metal workers. The great majority of modern anvils are made from steel, as well as cast iron or a combination of iron and steel. Because anvils are very ancient tools and were at one time very commonplace, they have acquired symbolic meaning beyond their use as utilitarian objects. The principle of the anvil also is of particular interest in biology and in ethnology; the anvil being in principle one   of the most basic forms of tool, its application occurs particularly widely in living organisms.  Structure of Anvil The primary work surface of the anvil is known as the face. It is generally made of hardened steel and should be flat and smooth with rounded edges for most work. Any marks on the face will be transferred to the work. Also, sharp edges tend to cut into the metal being worked and may cause cracks to form in the work piece. The face is hardened and tempered to resist the blows of the smith's hammer so the anvil face does not deform under repeated use. A hard anvil face also reduces the amount of force lost in each hammer blow. Hammers, tools, and work pieces of hardened steel should never directly strike the anvil face with full force, as they may damage it; this can result in chipping or deforming of the anvil face.   The horn of the anvil is a conical projection used to form various round shapes, and is generally unhardened steel or iron. The horn is used mostly in bending operations. It also is used by some smiths as an aid in drawing down stock, (making it longer and thinner). Some anvils, mainly European, are made with two horns, one square and one round. Also, some anvils are made with side horns or clips for specialized work. The table  is that area of the anvil between the horn and the face . It is soft and is used for cutting; its purpose is to prevent damaging the steel face of the anvil by conducting such operations there and so as not to damage the cutting edge of the chisel, many smiths shun this practice, as it will damage the anvil over time. The hardie hole  is a square hole into which specialized forming and cutting tools, called hardie tools, are placed. It is also used in  punching and bending operations. The   pritchel hole  is a small round hole that is present on most modern anvils. Some anvils have more than one. It is used mostly for punching. At times, smiths will fit a second tool to this hole to allow the smith more flexibility when using more than one anvil tool. Forge  A forge  is a type of  hearth used for heating metals, or the workplace ( smithy ) where said hearth is located. The forge is used by the smith to heat a piece of metal to a temperature where it becomes easier to shape, or to the point where work hardening no longer occurs. The   metal (known as the work piece ) is transported to and from the forge using tongs, which are   also used to hold the work piece on the smithy's anvil while the smith works it with a hammer. Finally the work piece is transported to the slack tub, which rapidly cools the work  piece in a large body of water. The slack tub also provides water to control the fire in the forge. Types of Forge: Coal/coke/charcoal forge A forge typically uses bituminous coal, industrial coke or  charcoal as the fuel to heat metal. The designs of these forges have varied over time, but whether the fuel is coal, coke or charcoal the basic design has remained the same.   A forge of this type is essentially a hearth or  fireplace designed to allow a fire to be controlled such that metal introduced to the fire may be brought to a malleable state or to bring about other metallurgical effects (hardening, annealing, and tempering as examples). The forge fire in this type of forge is controlled in three ways: amount of air, volume of fuel, and shape of the fuel/fire. During operation, fuel is placed in or on the hearth and ignited. A source of moving air, such as a fan or bellows, introduces additional air into the fire through the tuyere. With additional air, the fire consumes more fuel and burns hotter. A blacksmith  balances the fuel and air in the fire to suit particular kinds of work. Often this involves adjusting and maintaining the shape of the fire.  In a typical coal forge, a fire pot will be cantered in a flat hearth. The tuyere will enter the fire pot at the bottom. In operation, the hot core of the fire will be a ball of burning coke in and above the fire pot. The heart of the fire will be surrounded by a layer of hot but not  burning coke. Around the unburnt coke will be a transitional layer of coal being transformed into coke by the heat of the fire. Surrounding all is a ring or horseshoe-shaped layer of raw coal, usually kept damp and tightly packed to maintain the shape of the fire's heart and to keep the coal from burning directly so that it cooks into coke first. If a larger fire is necessary, the smith increases the air flowing into the fire as well as feeding and deepening the coke heart. The smith can also adjust the length and width of the fire in such a forge to accommodate different shapes of work.
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