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Transcript ©Vision IAS WORLD HISTORY (10) Contents: 1   Different Socio-Economic Systems  1.1   Capitalism   1.2   Communism   1.3   Socialism  2   orms !n S#! es of Soci!$ism   %   E&o$'tion of Soci!$ism !s ! o$itico-Economic System      I e!s of *!r$ +!r,      Soci!$ism in R'ssi!: Soci!$ Re&o$'tion!ries. /o$s#e&is !n +ens#e&is      Lenin !n +!r,ism      Soci!$ism in In i!   3ISIO4I5S 6 7778&isioni!s8in 7778&isioni!s87or 9ress8com   Co9yri#t ; <y 3ision I5S  All rights are reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission of Vision IAS      Rajinder Nagar:  1/8-B, 2 nd  Floor, Apsara Arcade, Near Gate 6, Karol Bagh Metro, Delhi Mukherjee Nagar:  10, 1 st  Floor, B/1-2, Ansal B!ilding, Behind #$ Ban%, Delhi-& 0&6'061(80(, 0&&6802&0&, 0&(1(162'&' 1 )))*+isionias*in ision .A t!dent Notes 1] Different Socio-Economic Systems   ers li%e #apitalis, ocialis and #o!nis are 3re4!entl5 !sed in general parlance, !t it is iportant to !nderstand the !nderl5ing eaning and philosophies ehind these ters* hese ters collecti+el5 denote the di33erent socio-econoic s5stes in !se across the )orld* For greater clarit5, general principles o3 these political philosophies ha+e een e7plained elo)* 1.1 Caita!ism he #apitalist s5ste o3 organiing the state and societ5 is ased on the principles that- there sho!ld e pri+ate o)nership o3 co!ntr59s )ealth, the econo5 )or%s on the principle o3 :aisse Faire i*e* the ar%et 3orces deterine the econoic policies and there is no coand econo5* he tate does not tell the ind!str5 )hat to prod!ce, )hen to prod!ce and ho) to prod!ce* Also, !nder the #apitalist s5ste, there is no special protection pro+ided to the )or%ing class* he )or%er is ;!st another 3actor o3 prod!ction li%e capital and land <Factors o3 prod!ction are the inp!ts re4!ired 3or prod!cing the 3inished goods=* he dri+ing 3orces o3 the #apitalist s5ste are 3oc!s on pri+ate enterprise <entreprene!rship=, sec!rit5 o3 pri+ate )ealth and prod!ction 3or pro3it oti+e* 1. Communism #o!nis is an econoic s5ste characteried 5 the collecti+e o)nership o3 propert5 5 the co!nit5, )ith the end goal eing coplete social e4!it5* he #o!nist s5ste o3 organiing the state and societ5 is ased on the ideas o3 Karl Mar7 )here 5 three things are o3 iportance +i o)nership o3 )ealth, econoic planning and protection o3 )or%ing class* he )ealth o3 the co!ntr5 sho!ld e collecti+el5 o)ned* he econo5 sho!ld e centrall5 planned <coand econo5= and the state sho!ld ta%e a33irati+e action 3or protection o3 interests o3 the )or%ing class* he dri+ing 3orces o3 the co!nist s5ste 3oc!s on e4!alit5, collecti+e o)nership and prod!ction 3or social good* Both #o!nis and #apitalis ha+e een adopted di33erentl5 5 di33erent co!ntries as per their o)n speci3ic re4!ireents* 1.# Socia!ism Be3ore )e o+e on to disc!ss the rise and e+ol!tion o3 socialis, it is iportant to clearl5 !nderstand the eaning o3 the ter* Most generall5, socia!ism refers to state o)nership o3 coon propert5, or state o)nership o3 the eans o3 prod!ction* Alternati+el5, socialis is an5 o3 the +ario!s s5stes o3 social organiation in )hich the eans o3 prod!cing and distri!ting goods can e pri+atel5 or collecti+el5 o)ned or dictated 5 a centralied go+ernent that o3ten plans and controls the econo5* Altho!gh, socialis does not al)a5s co-e7ist )ith onl5 co!nist or 3ascist go+ernents, the ipleentation o3 socialis in an5 co!ntries generall5 re4!ires that a strong central go+ernent e7ist to ipleent this philosoph5* ocialis has the 3ollo)ing characteristics a=   An >galitarian societ5 .t eans no class, caste or color sho!ld e discriinated against* “There can be no genuine liberty without equality”   =   atis3action o3 asic needs Moti+e o3 pro3it sho!ld e replaced 5 oti+e o3 ser+ice* he state sho!ld 3oc!s distri!tion o3 reso!rces not )here it )ill 3etch the highest +al!e, !t )here it is ost needed* c=   #oon $)nership #oon o)nership o3 all the eans o3 prod!ction* For the, an ind!str5 )hich is collecti+el5 o)ned is ore e33icient and 3ro the oral point o3 +ie) ore satis35ing*    Rajinder Nagar:  1/8-B, 2 nd  Floor, Apsara Arcade, Near Gate 6, Karol Bagh Metro, Delhi Mukherjee Nagar:  10, 1 st  Floor, B/1-2, Ansal B!ilding, Behind #$ Ban%, Delhi-& 0&6'061(80(, 0&&6802&0&, 0&(1(162'&' 2 )))*+isionias*in ision .A t!dent Notes d=   .deal o3 ser+ice ocialis ad+ocates the idea o3 general )el3are or coon good* .t protests against the harsh aterialis and indi+id!alis o3 classical lierals* A p!rel5 socialist state )o!ld e one in )hich the state o)ns and operates the eans o3 prod!ction* ?o)e+er, nearl5 all odern capitalist co!ntries coine socialis and capitalis* oe econoies are highl5 centralied, )hile soe others copletel5 decentralied* he5 all stand 3or e4!alit5 !t di33er on eaning attached to it* ] $orms and Shades of Socia!ism ocialis is not a straight3or)ard concept and se+eral 3ors o3 it ha+e eerged since its e7istence* Communism  is a closel5 related concept, )hich )e ha+e alread5 disc!ssed in rie3 e3ore* @!ssia )as the 3irst #o!nist state in the )orld* oon, co!nis <Mar7is= spread o!tside >!rope into Asia, o!th Aerica and A3rica, )ith each co!ntr5 adopting its o)n st5le o3 Mar7is as per their speci3ic needs, conditions and histor5* For e7aple, #hina adopted the @!ssian Model till 1&'8, !t then Mao introd!ced the Great :eap For)ard <1&'8= to get rid o3 )ea%nesses o3 the earlier odel and ring in a odel o3 co!nis/socialis that )o!ld e ore rele+ant to the #hinese sit!ation and ore e33ecti+e in sol+ing the speci3ic #hinese proles* h!s, it is to e !nderstood that there is no one per3ect odel o3 #o!nis and )hich 3eat!res are to e iported as it is, )hich 3eat!res are to e7cl!ded totall5 and )hich 3eat!res are to e odi3ied and then adopted - the ans)ers to these 4!estions +ar5 3ro co!ntr5 to co!ntr5 and 3ro tie to tie* he #o!nist #hina adopted Market Socia!ism  !nder Deng iaoping <leader 3ro 1&(8-1&&2=, )ho )as a ore lieral, relati+el5 less antagonistic to capitalis and th!s )as a right )ing co!nist* h!s, !nder Deng, the eople9s @ep!lic o3 #hina o+ed to)ards Mar%et >cono5 as per needs o3 the tie* Mar%et ocialis is a rand o3 socialis, )hich has a ocialist Mar%et >cono5, )hich is achie+ed thro!gh $pen Door >conoic olicies, )here5 the local econo5 is ore integrated to the gloal econo5 thro!gh decrease in in+estent and trade arriers* Mar%et ocialis has 3eat!res o3 decentraliation o3 econoic po)er <as it entailed )ithdra)al o3 co!nist part5 3ro decision a%ing in anageent o3 econo5=, ore pri+ate o)nership o3 land and other 3eat!res o3 capitalis* B!t, it does not lose sight o3 e4!alit5, )hich is the priar5 goal o3 a co!nist state* o clearl5 !nderstand the concept o3 socialis and co!nis it is iportant to dra) contrasts et)een the t)o* Mar%ism &s Socia!ism:  Mar7is is also %no)n 5 the nae o3 cienti3ic ocialis or Mar7ist ocialis, )hich )as a philosoph5 o3 Mar7 and >ngels as gi+en in the #o!nist ani3esto <18C8=* he conto!rs o3 this relationship can e !nderstood thro!gh the 3ollo)ing points a=   Mar7is tal%s ao!t ho) to ring ao!t socialis in the societ5* =   ocialis is an !rella ter and Mar7is is ;!st a part o3 it li%e other ethodologies s!ggested 5 other thin%ers to ring ao!t socialis* c=   ocialis as a concept is older than Mar7is* he topian socialists li%e @oert $)en and other socialists had )or%ed e3ore Mar7 ga+e his +ersion o3 ocialis* d=   Mar7is is socialis as desired 5 Mar7* e=   Mar7is is ocialis in an ind!strialied setting i*e* in an ind!strialied econo5*    Rajinder Nagar:  1/8-B, 2 nd  Floor, Apsara Arcade, Near Gate 6, Karol Bagh Metro, Delhi Mukherjee Nagar:  10, 1 st  Floor, B/1-2, Ansal B!ilding, Behind #$ Ban%, Delhi-& 0&6'061(80(, 0&&6802&0&, 0&(1(162'&'  )))*+isionias*in ision .A t!dent Notes 3=   Mar7is tal%s ao!t Dictatorship o3 roletariat <i*e* or%ing #lass=* h!s Mar7is9s 3oc!s is !pon )or%ers onl5 and th!s narro)* B!t 3oc!s o3 ocialis is )ider as it does not inds itsel3 to ;!st )or%ers and incl!des peasants and all pop!lation )or%ing in )hiche+er sector o3 econo5* For e7aple ocialis has een applied in non-.nd!strialied co!ntries +i 5 @!ssia, #hina, .ndia, ietna, #!a and A3rican co!ntries li%e Angola* g=   Mar7is is anti-tate and )ants a stateless societ5 )hile there is no s!ch cop!lsion on ocialis )hich is ore general concept and does not deands aandonent o3 tate* ocialis is not anti-state !t ;!st 3oc!sses !pon e4!alit5 o3 all* he .ndian ocialis rather !sed the instit!tion o3 tate to ring ao!t ore e4!alit5 in the societ5* h=   Method Mar7 arg!ed that the +iolent re+ol!tion is the onl5 )a5 !t there is no s!ch cop!lsion on ocialis* For e7aple, co!ntries li%e #hile !nder Allende )itnessed a peace3!l re+ol!tion 3or socialis and !nder a deocratic polit5* i=   >nds Ais o3 socialis are roader in nat!re* A +ersion o3 ocialis a5 ai 3or ere decrease in doination o3 the #apitalist s5ste )hile Mar7is ais 3or coplete annihilation o3 capitalis*  ;=   he siilarit5 lies in the 3act that Mar7is ais ocialis )hich iplies an e4!alit5 ased non-e7ploitati+e societ5* Both concepts are ;!st philosophies and lac% operational details ao!t ho) to act!all5 organie s!ch a societ5* h!s oth concepts ha+e scope 3or eing 3!rther elaorated in 3or o3 their operationaliation* $a'ian Socia!ism is 5et another 3or o3 socialis and has een disc!ssed elo) in rie3 he srcin o3 ter Faian ocialis can e traced ac% to the 3oration o3 the Faian ociet5 <188= in Britain* he Faian societ5 set the 3o!ndation principles o3 the :aor art5 in Britain* he Faianis andated e+ol!tion rather than @e+ol!tion to ring ao!t socialis* ?ere t)o things are o3 iportance $ne, to bring about socialism  and t)o, evolution.  he Faian ocialists did not ad+ocate o+erthro) o3 deocrac5 and estalishent o3 a one-part5 co!nist state* he5 elie+ed that a representati+e deocrac5 is the est political s5ste* Also, the5 re;ected the !se o3 +iolence to ring ao!t re+ol!tion and elie+ed in grad!al re3ors achie+ed thro!gh negotiations, petitions and a deocratic process to o+e the societ5 to)ards a socialist order* heir goal o3 e4!alit5 )as siilar to that o3 proponents o3 #o!nist states !t their eans )ere di33erent* roinent naes )ho are generall5 re3erred to as Faian ocialists incl!de Annie Besant and Ea)aharlal Nehr!* Democratic Socia!ism and Socia! Democracy are t)o reall5 iportant ters associated )ith ocialis* he srcin o3 these t)o ters can e traced to the split et)een the @e3orists and the @e+ol!tionar5 ocialists at the tie o3 2 nd  .nternational* For no) st!dents can !nderstand 2 nd  .nternational as an organiation o3 socialist and lao!r parties across the )orld* he @e3orists are also re3erred as ocial Deocrats* he ain iss!e o3 deate in the Deocratic ocialis is Deocratic +s A!thoritarian ocialis )hile the ain thr!st in the ocial Deocrac5 is on the re3orist non-+iolent eans against the re+ol!tionar5 +iolent eans to achie+e a socialist order* i*   Democratic Socia!ism:  he propo!nders o3 Deocratic ocialis arg!e 3or a socialist order )hich is tr!l5 deocratic* .n their +ie) in a tr!e ocialist societ5, the asses )o!ld ha+e the po)er to ta%e decisions regarding the anageent o3 econo5* heir thr!st is there3ore on (Socia!ism from )e!o*+  )hich has een 3!rther e7plained elo)
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