Writing revsion

1. WRITING PART (Hints &Useful structures) LETTERS ( FORMAL & INFORMAL) REVIEWS ESSAYS STORIES By Ana Ojer Source:…
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  • 1. WRITING PART (Hints &Useful structures) LETTERS ( FORMAL & INFORMAL) REVIEWS ESSAYS STORIES By Ana Ojer Source:
  • 2. FORMAL LETTERS (1)  You may have to write to an Individual or to an organization.  Possible Purposes:  To apply for a part-time job or a scholarship (APPLICATION LETTER)  To complain about something (COMPLAINT LETTER)  To request information (ENQUIRE LETTER)  STRUCTURE:  GREETINGS: 1) If you know the name: DEAR Mr, Mrs, Miss or Ms + Surname ( Dear Mr Simpson) 2) If you don’t know the name: DEAR SIR, DEAR MADAM (Dear Sir or Madam)  BODY: 1) Opening Paragraph: Reasons for writing 2) Main content 3) Closing: You state what you would like the recipient to do, make a reference to the future event, offer to help…  FINAL SALUTATION: 1) If you know the name: YOURS SINCERELY 2) If you don’t know the name: YOURS FAITHFULLY
  • 3. FORMAL LETTERS (2)  OTHER THINGS TO REMEMBER: 1) Use full verbs forms and not contractions 2) Formal language (no colloquial expressions, try avoiding phrasal verbs) 3) More complex sentence structures 4) Passive constructions 5) Use of formal language connectors Dear Sir or Madam, I am looking for outdoor work during the summer holidays and I would like to apply for the position of lifeguard assistant, which I saw advertised in my university's student newspaper. I am 20 years old and at present I am studying Physical Education. I am a strong swimmer and have recently had first aid training. I very much enjoy working with people and for the last two summers I have benn working as an assitant ranger in a National Park, where I had to provide information to the public about using the park and provide emergency assistance to park users. Now I am looking for something different. I think I would be a suitable candidate for the position because I have been described as calm in a crisis and someone who works well with others. I am available for the whole of August and would be happy to attend an interview at any time. I look forward to hearing from you at any time in the near future. Yours faithfully, Ivan Ivienen Dear Ms White, First, let me apologise for any disappointment your son experienced on our ski trip. It is true that there were several concerns. Since we had been led to believe by the company that there would be sufficient slopes for both beginners and advanced skiers, we were extremely upset when this turned out to not to be the case. It was also unfortunate that lack of snow meant that artificial snow had to be used instead. As for the question of lessons, if you look at the letter we sent you, you will see that only five one-hour lessons were included in the price and that extra hours would have to be paid for separately. In relation to accommodation, I am not quite sure what you are referring to. I know that in one room there were not enough beds but this was not the case in your son's room. We would like to assure you that we take all complaints seriously. We have already decided that next year we will change the company and the location for our trip and we hope that your son will consider joining us again. Yours sincerely, Ernest Omate
  • 4. INFORMAL LETTERS (1)  It is a type of letter between people who know each other fairly well. There are a lot of similarities between informal letters and conversation.  STRUCTURE:  GREETINGS: Start with Dear or Hi + the first name of the person (Dear Ben, Hi Ben)  BODY: 1) Opening Paragraph: When we write a letter we are usually replying to another letter so it might be a good idea to make some kind of reference to it. 2) Main content  CLOSING: 1) Give a reason why you are ending the letter (I must go and get on with my work, I guess it’s time I got on…) 2) Send greetings and make reference for future contact (Give my love/regards to…, Say hello to…, Anyway don’t forget to…, I can’t wait to hear from you, I look forward to hearing from you.,,) 3) Closing statement ( Love, lots of love, All the best, take care, best wishes…) 4) Sign off
  • 5. INFORMAL LETTERS (2)  OTHER THINGS TO REMEMBER: 1) Use contractions 2) Question tags 3) Phrasal verbs and colloquial expressions and vocabulary 4) Simpler sentence structures 5) Connectors specific for spoken language (By the way, Anyway, Actually, To tell you the truth, Well…. 6) Use of formal language connectors Hello Simon, I'm glad you're interested in my country. As your friend said, I'd like us to email each other to help me improve your English. Let me start by telling you a bit about myself and my family. My name's Ivo and I live in Kutna Hora, which is about 45 minutes from Prague by car. I used to work for a medical company but now I'm learning to be a salesperson. In the future I want a job where I can travel for my work. I've already been to a few places in Europe but I've never been to an English-speaking country. I live at home with my parents, which is convenient, as I don't have to do much housework and my meals are cooked for me. My younger brother is studying at university. Although he is four years younger than me, we get on quite well. We both enjoy snowboarding and music. What about you? Have you ever been to the Czech Republic? It would be great if you could come over one day and we could fix up a meeting. Why don't you let me know your plans? Anyway, I must go and get on with my work! Looking forward to hearing from you soon. Best wishes, Ivo
  • 6. A REVIEW (1)  It is usually written for a newspaper, magazine or website.  The main Purpose is to describe and express a personal opinion about something.  It would normally include a recommendation.  Possible topics for a review are:  A book A film  A product  Things to remember: 1) Give an interesting title 2) Use a normal and neutral style 3) Show a range of structures in the language of opinion, description and recommendation. (Adjectives and Adverbs)
  • 7. A REVIEW (2) ANIMAL FARM, BY GEORGE ORWELL This is an unusual book, set on a farm. The characters, led by the pigs, are mainly animals, who get rid of the cruel, drunken human owner and take over the farm. They set up a government of their own. The story isn't exciting but it's clever. At first, after the revolution, the animals are equal but later the pigs become more powerful and start to change everything. By the end of the novel, the animals realise they have gone back to where they started. In one way, the story is obviously not a true story but in another way, it is meant to tell the story of communism from a satirical point of view. The characters are very convincing. Napoleon, the leader of the pigs, is strong and corrupt. Other animals are honest but weak. They all represent people and the events in Russia in the 1920s and 30s. Although I enjoyed this book, I can imagine older people who were brought up when communism was still strong in the world and have probably read a lot about the Russian Revolution, would enjoy it even more.
  • 8. AN ESSAY(1)  An essay should be written in a formal register and tone.  It can be either :  One-sided composition (OPINION ESSAY). You must prove your main point- your thesis. It should be clearly stated in your opening paragraph.  A balanced composition (A FOR AND AGAINST ESSAY, ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES…). You must present both sides, you must give both arguments in favour and against the statement presented in the question but you still must give your opinion.  Things to remember 1) It is important to keep the focus of the topic question. All your ideas and opinions must be relevant to the topic. 2) Support your opinion with reasons and samples. 3) Ideas must be expressed in a clear and logical way. Your essay should be well organized and coherent:  Introduction: State the topic, give a brief outline of the issue, saying why it is important or why people have different opinions. DO NOT GIVE YOUR OPINION 1st argument. Reasons and samples to support it.  2nd argument & 3rd argument. . Reasons and samples to support it.  Conclusion (RE-STATE YOUR OPINION) 4) Use linking adverbials to organize your ideas. 5) Use direct and indirect questions 6) Use a great variety of structures.
  • 9. AN ESSAY(2) People’s approach to shopping has considerably varied in recent years, especially in prosperous countries. In fact, while in the past it was considered just as a customary, daily necessity, it has nowadays achieved a hobby status. In the author’s opinion, such a trend has different positive aspects and ought to be encouraged. Firstly, one should be aware that consumerism is the founding pillar of our free-market and capitalistic economy. Indeed, spending their money in buying specified goods as well as choosing one product instead of another, customers feed competition among companies, contributing significantly to improve standard qualities and decrease average prices of available wares. Although some might argue that actually the real power of manipulating markets is held by firms which may create trusts to control trades and production costs, consumers till possess a decisive role in accepting or refusing such a financial system. Moreover, throughout shopping, relevant amount of money earned by workers as salaries and wages become revenues for shop owners, actively determining an increase in nations’ GDPs and creating new work opportunities, which eventually result in an overall improvement of wealth and prosperity. This is the basis of economic development and applies both to financial superpowers, such as US or Germany, and to emerging countries like India or china, where, for instance, one of the largest luxury market of the world currently flourishes. To sum up, I utterly believe that strongpoints of free and advertised shopping , among which the possibility of influencing productive systems and markets as well as increasing global welfare are certainly worth the mention, make it a beneficial feature of modern times. ‘Smoking is harmful to society’. Discuss this statement giving arguments both against it and for it. It has become fashionable in the world today to condemn smoking. However, in my opinion, although I feel smoking is harmful in a number of ways I think it is also beneficial in other ways. Let me deal first with the positive side of smoking. The main point I would like to make is that smoking helps to relax people and to improve their concentration. For example, many people like to smoke before an exam or when they are relaxing with friends in the evening. A further point is that governments throughout the world make huge profits from levying taxes on cigarettes. This provides funds for building schools, hospitals and other public amenities. The tobacco industry also employs tens of thousands of people throughout the world. Without cigarettes these people would be without jobs. I would also argue that people should have the right to choose whether to smoke or not. People should not smoke in a room where there are non-smokers but surely they should be free to smoke elsewhere. I think there are also a number of arguments that support the statement. I think the most important point is that smoking is extremely dangerous to health. Heart disease, bronchitis and lung cancer have all been linked to smoking. A further issue is that smoking costs governments millions of pounds because of the large number of people who need treatment in hospitals for smoking related problems. There is also concern today about passive smoking. Recent research has shown that non - smokers can suffer health problems if they spend long periods of time among people who do smoke. In general, I think the world would be a better place without cigarettes. However, the decision whether to smoke or not should be for each individual to make.
  • 10. STORIES (1)  You are often given a sentence to start and finish your story.  Write a story that it is interesting and catches the reader’s attention.  Try to include some surprising, shocking or humoristic elements  Use different paragraphs: Paragraph 1: Set the scene. Where were you? When? Who were you with? Paragraph 2: Lead-up. What happened just before? What did you see/think? Paragraph 3: Main event. What happened? How did you feel? The ending. What happened in the end? How did you feel afterwards? How did people react?  Do not forget to: 1) Give your story a title 2) Use different tenses to tell your story: Past Simple (main events), Past Continuous (background information and description), Past Perfect (before the main events of the story) 3) Try to use some direct Speech 4) Contractions are allowed 5) Use plenty of descriptive adjectives and adverbs (suddenly, amazingly, unbelievably…)
  • 11. STORIES(2) It was raining hard. Billy hadn’t eaten for two days, so he was soaking wet and very miserable. Passing a greengrocer’s, he noticed some delicious, red apples . He quickly decided to steal them. He grabbed two and started to run.“Hey, you!” shouted the shopkeeper, “I know you, Billy Brown! I’ll tell your mum!” Billy ran to the park where he found a dry place to sit and eat. He wasn’t worried about the shopkeeper telling his mum. He didn’t care about his mum, his teachers or the police. He only cared about Grandpa Jo, and Grandpa Jo had passed away last week leaving Billy to face the world alone.Billy didn’t know what to do. He was 17 and had no money, no qualifications, no family – except his mother who he rarely saw. He closed his eyes and thought about his granddad. Suddenly an idea popped into his head. He walked back into town and went straight into a small office where there was a Union Jack in the window. “Can I help you?” asked the man in uniform at the desk. “Yes”, said Billy, “I want to join the army.”“I see” replied the officer. “I think you’d better sit down, then. We need to have a little chat.” Billy sat down and smiled. He knew that, wherever he was, Grandpa Jo would be proud of him.
  • Assignment

    Jul 23, 2017
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