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XCS473-Object Oriented Analysis and Design 2Marks

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XCS473-Object Oriented Analysis and Design 2Marks
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  NOORUL ISLAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING M Sc Software Engineering (5) Sixth Semester XCS 473 – Object Oriented Analysis & Design 2 Mark Questions Unit I 1.   Define Object Oriented Programming? OOP is the method of implementation in which programs are organized as cooperative collections of objects, each of which represents an instance of some class 2.   Define Object Oriented Design? OOD is the method of design encompassing the process of objects oriented decomposition and a notation for depicting logical and physical as well as static and dynamic models of the system under design. 3.   Define Object Oriented Analysis? OOA is a method of analysis that examines requirements from the perspective of the classes and objects found in the vocabulary of the problem domain. 4.   Name some kinds of programming styles? There are many they include Procedure oriented, object oriented, logic oriented, rule oriented etc. 5.   What are the four major elements of the object model? They are Abstraction, Encapsulation, Modularity and Hierarchy. 6.   What are the three minor elements of the object model? They are Typing, Concurrency and Persistence. 7.   Define abstraction? An abstraction denotes the essential characteristics of an object that distinguishes it from all other kinds of objects and thus provides crisply defined conceptual boundaries. 8.   Name the four kinds of abstraction? They are Entity, Action, Virtual machine and coincidental abstraction. 9.   Define Encapsulation? Encapsulation is the process of compartmentalizing the elements of an abstraction that constitute its structure and behavior. 10.   Define Modularity? Modularity is the property of a system that has been decomposed into a set of cohesive and loosely coupled modules. 11.   Define Hierarchy? Hierarchy is a ranking or ordering of abstractions. 12.   Define Typing? Typing is the enforcement oft the class of an object such that objects of different type may not be interchanged. 13.   Define Concurrency? Concurrency is the property that distinguishes an active object from one that is not active.  14.   Define Persistence? Persistence is the property of an object through which its existence transcends time. 15.   Write some applications of object model? They include Air traffic control, Animation, Avionics, Database, Robotics etc. 16.   Define an Object? An object has a state; behavior and identity, the structure an behavior of similar classes are defined in their common classes. 17.   What is state of an object? The state of an object encompasses all of the properties of he object plus the current values of each of these properties. 18.   What is Behavior of an object? Behavior is how an object acts and reacts in terms of its state changes and message passing. 19.   Name the two relationships among objects? They are Links and Aggregation. 20.   Define class? A class is a set of objects that share a common structure and a common behavior. Unit II 21.   Name the three general approaches for classification? They are Classical categorization, Conceptual clustering and Prototype theory. 22.   Define Conceptual clustering? Conceptual clustering is a more modern variation of the classical approach and largely derives from attempts to explain how knowledge is represented. 23.   Define Key abstraction and mechanism? They include classes and objects. 24.   What is Classification? It is the process of identifying and categorizing the key abstractions and mechanisms. 25.   Name any 2 Static diagrams? Class and Object diagram. 26.   What are the dynamic diagrams? They include State and Interaction diagrams. 27.   Name the 3 essential elements of process diagrams? They are Processor, devices and connections. 28.   Define Classical categorization? It’s the method of identifying the key abstractions and mechanisms in OOAD. It’s makes use of the tangible things, roles, events, people etc. 29.   Define Prototype theory? Prototype theory is a better theory than the other 2, where a class of objects is represented by a prototypical theory, were object is member of the class. 30.   What is class utility? Class utility contains all the non member functions of the classes.  31.   What is the role of an object? Role of an object is to be the type of its class and hold the implementation of the interface and to act at instances. 32.   What are the conditions to follow while building quality classes? In order to build quality classes and objects we need to satisfy the following. They are Coupling, Cohesion, Sufficiency, Completeness and Primitiveness. 33.   What is the need of an Object diagram? An object diagram is used to show the existence of objects and their relationships in the logical design of a system. 34.   What is the need of an Interaction diagram? An Interaction diagram is used to trace the exception of a scenario in the same context of an object diagram. 35.   What is the need of a Module diagram? A module diagram is used to show the allocation of classes and objects to modules in the physical design of the system. 36.   What is the need of a Module diagram? A process diagram is used to show the allocation of processes to processors in the physical design of the system. 37.   What are the characteristic features of an Interaction diagram? They include the representation of objects with its name and class name. Each object has a life line. The order of messaging between objects is well defined. 38.   What is a Meta class? A Meta class is a class about a class. They are normally used to provide instance variables and operations. 39.   What is the need of a Class diagram? A class diagram is used to show the existence of classes and their relationships in the logical view of a system. 40.   What are the different models in OO development? They are Physical, Logical, Static and Dynamic models. Unit III 41.   Name the five levels of process maturity in OOD? They are Initial, Repeatable, Defined, Managed and Optimized. 42.   Name the two process used by Grady BOOCH in his OO software development? They are Macro and Micro development process. 43.   Name the four steps in Micro development process? They are Identify the classes, Give semantics to the classes, Set relationship to classes and implement the classes and objects. 44.   What are activities in identifying the class micro process? They are applying the classical approach, apply the techniques of behavior analysis and apply the use case analysis. 45.   What are activities in giving semantics to the class in class micro process? The activities include Select one scenario or a set, walkthrough the activity of the scenario and story boarding.  46.   What are activities in giving relationships to the class in class micro process? They are collecting a set of classes at a given level of abstraction, consider the presence of semantic dependency between any two classes, specify the role of the participant and validate the decision. 47.   What are activities in implementing the class in class micro process? They are for each class considers its protocol, consider the use of protected or private inheritance for implementation, consider the objects to which we might delegate responsibility and represent the primitives in the language. 48.   What are the steps followed in macro development process? They are Conceptualization, Analysis, Design, Evolution and Maintenance. 49.   What are the activities in the conceptualization of macro process? They are establishing a set of goals for the proof of concept, assemble an appropriate team to develop the prototype and evaluate the resulting prototype. 50.   What are the activities in the Analysis of macro process? They are Domain analysis and Scenario planning. 51.   What are the activities in the Design macro process? They include the clustering of function points from the products of analysis, validate the architecture by creating an executable release and instrument that architecture and assess its weakness and strengths. 52.   What are the activities in the Evolution of macro process? They are identify the function points, assign tasks to the team to carry out this release, and understand the semantics of the system desired behavior etc. 53.   What are the activities in the maintenance of macro process? They are prioritize requests, establish a meaningful collection of changes, add less intense and more localized enhancements and manage the next evolutionary release. 54.   Name some development team roles? They are like Project architect, Subsystem lead and application engineer. 55.   Define SQA? SQA stands for Software Quality Assurance. This is the measure of assuring the quality of the software products. The major activity done here is testing. The assurance process also follows the quality model called the QAI-MODEL. 56.   What is QAI? QAI stands for Quality Assurance Institute that proposes a QAI-MODEL that is to be followed by all testing process to achieve world class testing. 57.   What are the various Defects? The various defects include Wrong, Missing, Variance, Extra etc. 58.   Name any two testing tools? They are many it includes Rational Robo, Enterprise Architect etc. 59.   What is V Testing? ‘V’ testing stands for Verification and Validation testing. 60.   What is the responsibility of the tools manager? They are responsible for the selection of tool, purchase, training etc. They help in the implementation of the appropriate tool for the desired process. They keep track of the legacy tools also.
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