Description YDS Okuma & Kelime Bülteni 9 WATER RESOURCES: A COMMODITY? With increasing population and growing water usage, water shortages have become a source of potential and ongoing conflicts. One of the main issues is the competing claims of upstream and downstream nations. As downstream nations attempt to win more water rights, upstream nations try to kee
of 8
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Related Documents
Transcript      YDS Okuma &Kelime Bülteni 9    WATER RESOURCES: A COMMODITY? With increasing population and growing water usage, water shortages have become a source of  potential and ongoing conflicts. One of the main issues is the competing claims of upstream and downstream nations. As downstream nations attempt to win more water rights, upstream nations try to keep control of the water resources in their territories. While current resources are insufficient in many regions, water will become even scarcer in the future, producing tension among nations sharing rivers. PROS CONS Water occurs randomly, just like oil and gas, which are treated as commodities that can be bought and sold. If countries can take advantage of their geographic location to sell oil and gas, they are justified in using water resources to support their economies. Failure to view water as a precious, marketable commodity makes it far less valued and leads to unrestricted water use by environmentally unconscious societies. Water is the most vital of Earth’s randomly occurring resources; it is essential for survival. Consequently, water-rich countries have no moral right to profit from this resource. Every inhabitant of the planet has an equal right to water, and flowing water has no political boundaries. Control and management of water  — the maintenance of dams, reservoirs, and irrigation systems — costs millions of dollars and is a burden on upstream states’  budgets. All of these expenses, including the opportunity cost of fertile lands allocated for reservoirs and dams, should be covered by downstream states, which are the primary consumers of water. For example, that an upstream state cannot use the water flowing through it to produce electricity to offset the costs of water management is unfair. It is immoral to charge for water beyond the cost of water systems’ maintenance. Water is a commodity only up to a certain point. Once water exceeds a reservoir’s  capacity, it is not a commodity because it will flow free over the dam. Dams may also create dangerous conditions because downstream states may be flooded if a dam breaks. Water resources are distributed unequally. Uneven distribution and wasteful consumption warrant the introduction of the “pay -for- water” approach. Is it fair to prefer to use water to irrigate infertile semi-deserts downstream rather than using water more efficiently upstream? Faced with scarcity and drought, states may resort to force to gain control of water resources. Therefore, making water a commodity is a potential cause of many conflicts and should be avoided.    WAR CRIMES TRIBUNALS    Always controversial and shrouded in the solemn aftermath of terrible crimes, war crimes tribunals are the international community’s response to national wrongdoings. They raise seriou s questions about sovereignty and international law. Whether held after World War II, Rwanda, Bosnia, or Kosovo, they never fail to provoke outrage from one corner and vindictiveness from the other. Would such matters better be left alone? The trial of Slobodan Milosevic in The Hague in the opening years of this century is an example of how complicated issues of international justice and power come to the fore in such tribunals. PROS CONS Wrongdoing and wrongdoers must be punished. When a crime has consumed an entire nation, only a foreign trial can supply disinterested due process. Of course wrongdoing should be punished. But the trial should be held in the country where the crime was committed. Any outside intervention in matters of sovereign states is high-handed and imperialistic. Countries can explicitly cede jurisdiction for such crimes to international tribunals. These bodies are trying to achieve justice and closure that will benefit the entire nation. Closure is the last thing tribunals bring. These trials alienate large portions of the nation and turn people against the new government, which is seen as collaborating with foreign imperialists. Such trials increase tension. The world community must send a clear message that it will act against appalling war crimes. This must be done on an international stage through international courts. No one can dispute the enormity of such crimes. But these trials damage a nation by reopening old wounds. Spain, for example, did not embark on witch-hunts following the bloody and repressive regime of Francisco Franco. Instead, it turned the page on those years and moved on collectively with no recrimination. Between  justice and security there is always a trade-off. Where possible, peace should be secured by reconciliation rather than recrimination. The issue of sovereignty is increasingly less important in a globalizing world. The pooling of sovereignty occurs with increasing frequency, and any step toward an internationalization of legal systems, such as the use of international tribunals, is welcome. Whatever the truth about globalization and sovereignty, war crimes tribunals do not standardize justice. They are nothing more than victors’ arbitrary justice. This  type of justice undermines international law. We have to uphold the principle that if you commit serious crimes, you will be punished. If we do not take action against war criminals, we will encourage future crimes. The threat of possible legal action has not stopped countless heinous crimes in the past, so why should it now? These people are not rational and have no respect for international law.


Jul 23, 2017
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks