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  Extra point - Signaling Plane vs. User Planeã   -User Plane is the user traffic that contain the conversation between 2 or more user peers.  –   Carried over the core network as a bearer  –   Example. Voice call or Browsing data traffic through GPRSã -Control Plane is signaling communication used to control the bearer traffic.  –   Involving of sending and receiving messages between 2 nodes.  –   Example. Communication between SGSN and HLR. - Umts:  Universal Mobile Terrestrial System. - GERAN   is an abbreviation for  GSM EDGE Radio Access Network. - UTRAN (short for Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network ) -E-utran-evolved utran -- Lte dont hav    bsc-eNB embeds its own control functionality, rather than using an RNC - Mme : -4gThe MME is responsible for mobility management in the control plane, including management of the user contexts and mobile status, and assignment of temporary identifiers. - The S-GW -4g is the anchor point in the user plane between different access networks. It can shield interfaces within the 3GPP network towards different access networks. The S-GW is the gateway that terminates the interface towards E-UTRAN. - The P-GW  -4gis the anchor point in the user plane between the 3GPP access networks and non-3GPP access networks. The P-GW is the gateway that terminates the SGi interface towards the PDN. - sgsn:   -2g n 3g-The SGSN is an NE used to provide the packet data services. The main function of the SGSN is to forward the IP packets from/to the UEs in its own SGSN service area - ggsn :2g,3g- The GGSN is a functional entity that provides packet data services. It routes and encapsulates data packets between the GPRS/UMTS network and an external PDN. - cg : the CG collects, and pre-processes the charging history records (CDRs) generated by the GGSN, S-GW and P-GW. The CG also provides an interface to the billing center - PCRF is the policy and charging control element. - the term handover or handoff refers   to the process of transferring an ongoing call or data session from one channel connected to the core network to another channel,  - hard handover -old connection is broken before a new connection is activated(GSm) - The inter-cell handover switches a call in progress from one cell to another cell, and the intra-cell handover switches a call in progress from one physical channel of a cell to another physical channel of the same cell. - soft handover , New connection is activated before the old is broken,Used in UMTS to improve the signal quality ã   - Softer handover   is the situation where one base station receives two user signals from two adjacent sectors it serves. ã   In the case of softer handover the base station receives 2 separated signals through multi- path propagation. ã   Due to reflections on buildings or natural barriers the signal sent from the mobile stations reaches the base station from two different sectors. - WA251DK-NE ( DK is 2.4/5G integrated antenna!!)-huawei AP - TGW : introduce throughput from wifi to PS network - DBS3900   scenario: Outdoor, if AC powered, use APM30H,If -48V DC, use TMC11H - DCCU - Direct Current Distributed Unit - CPRI c onnects BBU to RFU and RRU - E1 : 2.047Mbps, T1:1.544Mbps, FE: 100Mbps,GE: 1000Mbps Bsc 6900, -rnc pooling,two typea ,node redundancy and load sharing ,share the  processing resources between rnc,main purpose is to reduce the congestion possibility un busy hours,1 rnc out of service ,operation still able to continue,rnc cost optimization,several rnc form  a large pool allow maximize install huawei capacity utilization,flexibility capacity increase,several additional rnc could be integrated,feature sharing,the same feature can be used in whole network even if some rnc not support all features BBU - bbu 3910:performance improved ,cpri interface number increase 200  percent,backplane switch capacity increase,support feature evolution in future,configuration simplified,use any bbp slot for cpri connection,no need to adjust bbp position in bbu when support new feature - UPEU , which is in charge of the outdoor power flow -UBBP is version SRAN9.0 onwards -GUL need 2 BBU= GTMU+UMPT & LMPT, But SRAN8.0 need 1 BBU because UMPT can support 3G & LTE FAN-controls the rotation speed of the fans and monitors the temperature of the fan module. -Note: SRAN7.0: UMPT support U or L SRAN8.0 onwards: Different modes share one control board SRAN 9.0 : BBU interconnection through UMPT+UMPT is supported U2k - The U2000 provides the dual IP address   configuration solution that supports northbound and southbound network isolation,,north for open south for private, - ATAE:  Advanced Telecommunications Application Environment A carrier-class processing platform that is designed to meet the service application requirement of high performance, high specialization, and high integration. MBB: Mobile broadband - -Through LDAP we can communicate with 3 party system and edit huawei accounts in oss-Lightweight Directory Access Protocol - u2000 m2k diff  ,just difference is capacity ,u2000 store 2000 NE,m2000 1200 ne - Emergency system    introduced in U2000 after M2000 - u2k mediation board   is provide performance data collection, conversion and storage  --- Display on M2000 client and storage in M2000 database: Performance counter 3-Tier Architecture: User interface/Business logic layer/Data access layer Umbrella system: NMS Info we need to know to configure M2000 Types and versions of physical NEs Performance period 15 min, 30 min, 60 min Performance data every 60 min or every 15 min requires different hardware capabilities for the M2000.  Number of performance counters All counter model KPI model Counter increase, same NE more. KPI:1/50 => 50 cells to 1 eNE Different number of performance counters can be converted into equivalent NEs of different numbers. Ugw9811 - The SRU/MPU, as the main control and switching unit of the UGW9811, is responsible for centralized control and management and data exchange. The SRU/MPUs work in 1+1 backup mode. The SRU/MPU is composed of the main control unit, switching unit, system clock unit, synchronous switching clock unit, and system maintenance unit. -The SRU applies to a PGP-X8 subrack, and   the MPU applies to PGP-16 and PGP-X16 subracks. The SRU in a PGP-X8 subrack integrates the function of an SFU.   Usn9810   -By using ESU, able to downsize the cabinet to only 1 cabinet to support the boards while achieving high capacity.USN Mostly handle signalling, less data, ATCA -   Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture  platform,
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