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  Biology Notes of First Year IntroductionCHAPTER – 1DEFINITIN F BI! YBiology is t#e study of li$ing organis%s& It is deri$ed fro% ree' (ords&C!A))IFICATIN F !I*IN R ANI+ATIN According to t#e %odern classification gi$en ,y R&H&-#itta'er in 1./.0 li$ing organis%s are di$ided into fi$e %aor 'ingdo%s0 (#ic# are23IN D4 4NERAIt includes all 5ro'aryotes0 unicellular organis%s& For e6a%5le Bacteria and Cyan ,acteria&3IN D4 PRTCTI)TA7PRTI)TA8It includes unicellular Eu'aryotic organis%s0 (#ic# are in ,et(een 5lants and ani%als& e&g& C#la%ydo%onas0 Euglena0 Para%eciu%& etc1& 3IN D4 F9N IIt includes non:c#loro5#yllus %ulti:cellular0 t#allo5#ytic organis%s #a$ing cell (all& For e6a%5le all ty5es of fungi0 unicellular to %ulti:cellular li'e 4us#roo%s and Yeast etc&;& 3IN D4 P!ANTAEIt includes all c#loro5#yllus %ulti:cellular Eu'aryotic li$ing organis%s #a$ing cellulose cell (all& For e6a%5le a55le0 red (ood etc&<& 3IN D4 ANI4A!IAIt includes all Eu'aryotic %ulti:cellular0 non:c#loro5#yllus organis%s #a$ing no cell (all& For e6a%5le Hydra0 Eart#(or%0 Hu%an Beings etc&E93ARYTIC R ANI)4)T#ose organis%s0 (#ic# #a$e true %e%,ranous structure in t#eir cells0 li'e %itoc#ondria0 golgi ,odies0 endo5las%ic reticulu%& e&g& All 5lants0 Hig#er ani%als&PR3ARYTE)T#ose li$ing organis%s0 (#ic# do not #a$e true %e%,ranous structure in t#eir cells& e&g& Bacteria0 Blue green algae&PHY!ETIC !INEA E All li$ing organis%s of today ,elong to a co%%on ancestor and eac# s5ecie of organis% arranged no ancestor to descendent order (it# rest of t#e grou5 e$ol$ed fro% one t#at i%%ediately 5receded&BRANCHE) F BI! Y  1& 4!EC9!AR BI! YIt is a recent ,ranc# of ,iological science t#at deals (it# t#e structure and function of t#e %olecules t#at for% structure of cell and organelles t#at ta'e 5art in t#e ,iological 5rocesses of a li$ing organis% 7Nucleic acid – Protein %olecule8;& 4ICR BI! YIt deals (it# t#e study of %icro:organis%s 7$iruses0 ,acteria0 5roto=oan etc8<& EN*IRN4ENTA! BI! YIt deals (it# t#e study of en$iron%ent and its effect on organis%s&>& 4ARINE BI! YIt deals (it# t#e study of organis%s in#a,iting t#e sea an ocean0 and t#e 5#ysical and c#e%ical c#aracteristics of t#eir en$iron%ent&?& FRE)H -ATER BI! YIt deals (it# t#e life d(elling in fres# (aters0 5#ysical and c#e%ical c#aracteristics of fres# (ater ,odies affecting it&/& PARA)IT! YIt deals (it# t#e study of 5arasitic organis%s0 t#eir life cycles0 %ode of trans%ission and interaction (it# t#eir #osts&@& H94AN BI! YT#e ,ranc# of ,iology deals (it# all ,iological as5ects of %an regarding e$olution0 anato%y 5#ysiology0 #ealt#0 in#eritance etc&& )CIA! BI! Y)ocial ,iology is concerned (it# t#e social interactions (it# in a 5o5ulation of a gi$en s5ecies0 es5ecially in #u%an ,eings focuses on suc# issue as (#et#er certain ,e#a$ior are in#erited or culturally induced&.& BITECHN! YT#is is a $ery recent ,ranc# introduce in ,iological sciences& It deals (it# t#e use of data and tec#niues of engineering and tec#nology for t#e study and solution of 5ro,le%s concerning li$ing organis%s 5articularly t#e #u%an ,eings&BI! ICA! 4ETHDIn order to sol$e t#e ,iological 5ro,le%s 7any ani%al or 5lant disease or en$iron%ental #a=ard80 follo(ing ste5s are necessary&1& HYPTHE)I) An educated guess or fact regarding t#e ,iological 5ro,le%&IND9CTI*E REA)NIN Isolated facts to reac# a general idea t#at e65lain t#e ,iological 5ro,le%&  DED9CTI*E REA)NIN  Accurate e65eri%entation0 true conclusions or results regarding t#e ,iological 5ro,le%s&;& B)ER*ATINEPERI4ENT)T#e gi$en #y5ot#esis is c#ec'ed (it# t#e #el5 of o,ser$ation and e65eri%ents and t#en on t#e ,asis of it a t#eory or rule is esta,lis#ed&<& THERYIf o,ser$ations and e65eri%ents co%e true t#en #y5ot#esis is ta'en true0 ot#er (ise it is reected& nly on t#e ,asis of true #y5ot#esis a t#eory is esta,lis#ed&>& !A-PRINCIP!E-#en t#eory is 5ro$ed to ,e true under all tested circu%stances t#en it is acce5ted as a la(&4A!ARIA4alaria %eans disease cause ,y ,ad air& Actual Causati$e agent is 5las%odiu% 7*ector Fe%ale0 Ano5#eles 4osuito8!e$eran first disco$er 5las%odiu% in #u%an R&B&C&Ronald Ross disco$ered 5las%odiu% in t#e sto%ac# of fe%ale  Ano5#eles 4osuito& rassi disco$er t#e co%5lete life cycle of Plas%odiu% in #u%an ,eing and %osuito& ANTIBITIC))u,stances or c#e%icals0 (#ic# are reuired in s%all uantity to in#i,it t#e gro(t# of 4icroorganis%s& T#e first anti,iotic (as 5enicillin disco$ered ,y Fle%ing& t#er e6a%5les are2 Eryt#ocin0 Ryt#ocin0 enta%ycin0 A%5icillin etc&CHE4THERAPYTreat%ent (it# drug or c#e%ical&RADITHERAPYTreat%ent (it# radiations0 li'e 0 0 G or :rays&HYDRPNIC)It is t#e science of terrestrial 5lants gro(ing in aerated solutions 7add C; under 5ressure0 in any liuid also 'no(n as aerated (ater8& T#istec#niue is also 'no(n as soil less or (ater culture& AD*ANTA E)1& Control (eeds and soil disease 5ro,le%s&;& Area reuired for culti$ation is %ini%u%&<& Can ,e a55lied on any 5art of t#e (orld&>& 4ain 5ur5ose is to fulfill t#e food reuire%ents of ra5idly increasing  (orld 5o5ulation&C!NIN Production of du5licate co5ies of genetic %aterial0 cells or entire %ulticellular li$ing organis%s0 occurring naturally in 5lants or ani%als&Du5licate co5ies are 'no(n as clones&NAT9RA! C!NIN Identical t(in0 tri5let in #u%ans& Ase6ual re5roduction in 5lants and ani%al&Regeneration and (ound #ealing& ro(t# of tu%or cells or cancers& ARTIFICIA! C!NIN Cloning of #u%an cells suc# as li$er cells0 s'in cells0 ,lood cells are uite #el5ful to de$elo5 #u%an organs in la,oratories&T#ere are also enor%ous ad$antages of cloning in t#e field of %edicine and agriculture& E6a%5les are $egetati$e re5roduction of fruits and nuts ,y grafting& Artificial cloning is also used for treating disease0 5roduction of %edically significant su,stances suc# as Insulin0 gro(t# #or%ones0 interferon and anti:t#ro%,in etc&!E*E! F BI! ICA! R ANI+ATIN!ife is ,uilt on c#e%ical foundation and t#e life of all li$ing organis%s e%erges on t#e le$el of cell& T#e foundation of cell is ,ased on ele%ents& Ato%s of different ele%ents unite to for% %olecules& !i$ing organis% usually for% e6tre%ely large and co%5le6 %olecules ,y li$ing %atter (#ic# is 5resent in t#eir ,odies& T#e %olecules of li$ing organis%s are %ostly co%5osed of car,on and 5ro$ide ,uilding ,loc's of li$ing %atter& 4ostly li$ing %atter of an organis% is co%5osed of organic %olecules along (it# inorganic co%5ounds 7%inerals8 are also associated for e&g& Hu%an ,lood& )i%5le organic %olecules 5resent in li$ing organis%s are sugar0 glycerol and fatty acids0 a%ino acids0 5urine and 5yra%idines& )i%ilar ty5es of cells for%:tissues0 si%ilar tissues for% organs0 different organs coordinating (it# eac# ot#er for% syste% and different syste%s co%,ine to for% a li$ing organis%&Cell  Tissues  organs  )yste%  An Indi$idualBiological organi=ation can ,e di$ided into t#e follo(ing le$els2)9B:AT4IC PARTIC!E)Particles t#at %a'e u5 an ato% are called su,:ato%ic 5articlesJ&For e&g& electron0 5roton and Neutron& AT4
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