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  CELLULAR BASEBAND SECURITY A ThesisPresented toThe Academic FacultybyAndrew DavisIn Partial Fulfillmentof the Requirements for the DegreeBachelor Of Science in theCollege Of ComputingGeorgia Institute of TechnologyMay 2012  CELLULAR BASEBAND SECURITY Approved by:Assistant Professor Jonathon T. Gi ffi n,Committee ChairCollege Of Computing Georgia Institute of Technology  Assistant Professor Jonathon T. Gi ffi n,AdvisorCollege Of Computing Georgia Institute of Technology  Assistant Professor Patrick TraynorSchool of Computer Science Georgia Institute of Technology  Date Approved: 27 April 2012  TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  vLIST OF FIGURES  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  viI INTRODUCTION  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  1II LITERATURE REVIEW  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3 2.1 Software Memory Corruption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32.2 Embedded Systems Security Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42.3 Baseband Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52.4 GSM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62.5 OpenBTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62.6 Reverse Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72.7 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 III METHODS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8 3.1 Reversing the Baseband . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83.2 Creating the Testing Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83.3 Using Information from Reversing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93.4 Fuzzing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93.5 Understand Capabilities and Design of the Baseband System . . . . 93.6 Application Operating System Defenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 IV RESULTS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11 4.1 Reverse Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114.2 Lab Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124.3 Fuzzing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 V DISCUSSION  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15 5.1 Impact of Successful Attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155.1.1 Espionage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155.1.2 Denial of service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15iii  5.1.3 Identity Theft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165.2 Possible Attackers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165.2.1 Governments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165.2.2 Criminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175.3 Defenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175.3.1 In Phone Defenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175.3.2 Network Defenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175.3.3 Proximity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 VI CONCLUSION  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19REFERENCES  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20 iv

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