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The Code of Hammurabi

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The Code of Hammurabi Translated by L. W. King
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  The Code of Hammurabi Translated by L. W. King When Anu the Sublime, King of the Anunaki, and Bel, the lord of Heaven and earth, who decreed the fate of the land, assigned to Marduk , the overruling son of !a, od of righteousness, dominion over earthl# man, and made him great among the $gigi, the# called Bab#lon  b# his illustrious name, made it great on earth, and founded an everlasting kingdom in it, whose foundations are laid so solidl# as those of heaven and earth% then Anu and Bel called b# name me, Hammurabi, the e&alted 'rince, who feared od, to  bring about the rule of righteousness in the land, to destro# the wicked and the evildoers%so that the strong should not harm the weak% so that $ should rule over the blackheaded  'eo'le like Shamash, and enlighten the land, to further the wellbeing of mankind( Hammurabi, the 'rince, called of  Bel am $, making riches and increase, enriching  )i''ur   and *urilu be#ond com'are, sublime 'atron of !kur % who reestablished !ridu and  'urified the worshi' of !a'su% who con+uered the four +uarters of the world, made greatthe name of Bab#lon, reoiced the heart of  Marduk , his lord who dail# 'a#s his devotions in Saggil% the ro#al scion whom Sin made% who enriched -r % the humble, the reverent, who brings wealth to ishshirgal% the white king, heard of Shamash, the might#, who again laid the foundations of Si''ara% who clothed the gravestones of  Malkat with green% who made !babbar  great, which is like the heavens, the warrior who guarded .arsa and renewed !babbar , with Shamash as his hel'er% the lord who granted new life to -ruk ,  who brought 'lenteous water to its inhabitants, raised the head of !anna, and 'erfected the beaut# of Anu and  )ana% shield of the land, who reunited the scattered inhabitants of $sin% who richl# endowed !galmach% the 'rotecting king of the cit#, brother of the god /amama% who firml# founded the farms of Kish, crowned !meteursag with glor#, redoubled the great hol# treasures of   )ana, managed the tem'le of  Harsagkalama% the grave of the enem#, whose hel' brought about the victor#% who increased the 'ower of Cuthah% made all glorious in !shidlam, the black steer, who gored the enem#% beloved of  the god  )ebo, who reoiced the inhabitants of Borsi''a, the Sublime% who is indefatigable for !0ida% the divine king of the cit#% the White, Wise% who broadened the fields of *ilbat, who hea'ed u' the harvests for -rash% the Might#, the lord to whom come sce'ter and crown, with which he clothes himself% the !lect of Mama% who fi&ed the tem'le bounds of Kesh, who made rich the hol# feasts of  )intu% the 'rovident, solicitous, who 'rovided food and drink for .agash and irsu, who 'rovided large sacrificial offerings for the tem'le of  )ingirsu% who ca'tured the enem#, the !lect of the oracle who fulfilled the 'rediction of Hallab, who reoiced the heart of Anunit% the 'ure  'rince, whose 'ra#er is acce'ted b# Adad% who satisfied the heart of Adad, the warrior, in Karkar , who restored the vessels for worshi' in !udgalgal% the king who granted life to the cit# of Adab% the guide of !mach% the 'rincel# king of the cit#, the irresistible warrior, who granted life to the inhabitants of Mashkanshabri, and brought abundance to the tem'le of Shidlam% the White, 1otent, who 'enetrated the secret cave of the bandits, saved the inhabitants of Malka from misfortune, and fi&ed their home fast in wealth% who established 'ure sacrificial gifts for !a and *amgalnunna, who made his kingdom everlastingl# great% the 'rincel# king of the cit#, who subected the districts on the -dkibnunna Canal to the swa# of *agon, his Creator% who s'ared the inhabitants of Mera   and Tutul% the sublime 'rince, who makes the face of  )inni shine% who 'resents hol# meals to the divinit# of  )ina0u, who cared for its inhabitants in their need, 'rovided a  'ortion for them in Bab#lon in 'eace% the she'herd of the o''ressed and of the slaves% whose deeds find favor before Anunit, who 'rovided for Anunit in the tem'le of *umash  in the suburb of Agade% who recogni0es the right, who rules b# law% who gave back to thecit# of Ashur  its 'rotecting god% who let the name of $shtar  of  )ineveh remain in !mish mish% the Sublime, who humbles himself before the great gods% successor of Sumulail% the might# son of Sinmuballit% the ro#al scion of !ternit#% the might# monarch, the sun of Bab#lon, whose ra#s shed light over the land of Sumer  and Akkad% the king, obe#ed  b# the four +uarters of the world% Beloved of  )inni, am $( When Marduk  sent me to rule over men, to give the 'rotection of right to the land, $ did right and righteousness in ( ( ( , and brought about the wellbeing of the o''ressed( CODE OF LAWS 2( $f an# one ensnare another, 'utting a ban u'on him, but he can not 'rove it, then he thatensnared him shall be 'ut to death( 3( $f an# one bring an accusation against a man, and the accused go to the river and lea' into the river, if he sink in the river his accuser shall take 'ossession of his house( But if the river 'rove that the accused is not guilt#, and he esca'e unhurt, then he who had  brought the accusation shall be 'ut to death, while he who lea'ed into the river shall take  'ossession of the house that had belonged to his accuser( 4( $f an# one bring an accusation of an# crime before the elders, and does not 'rove what he has charged, he shall, if it be a ca'ital offense charged, be 'ut to death( 5( $f he satisf# the elders to im'ose a fine of grain or mone#, he shall receive the fine that the action 'roduces( 6( $f a udge tr# a case, reach a decision, and 'resent his udgment in writing% if later error shall a''ear in his decision, and it be through his own fault, then he shall 'a# twelve times the fine set b# him in the case, and he shall be 'ublicl# removed from the udge7s  bench, and never again shall he sit there to render udgement( 8( $f an# one steal the 'ro'ert# of a tem'le or of the court, he shall be 'ut to death, and also the one who receives the stolen thing from him shall be 'ut to death( 9( $f an# one bu# from the son or the slave of another man, without witnesses or a contract, silver or gold, a male or female slave, an o& or a shee', an ass or an#thing, or if he take it in charge, he is considered a thief and shall be 'ut to death(  :( $f an# one steal cattle or shee', or an ass, or a 'ig or a goat, if it belong to a god or to the court, the thief shall 'a# thirt#fold therefor% if the# belonged to a freed man of the king he shall 'a# tenfold% if the thief has nothing with which to 'a# he shall be 'ut to death( ;( $f an# one lose an article, and find it in the 'ossession of another< if the 'erson in whose 'ossession the thing is found sa# =A merchant sold it to me, $ 'aid for it before witnesses,= and if the owner of the thing sa#, =$ will bring witnesses who know m#  'ro'ert#,= then shall the 'urchaser bring the merchant who sold it to him, and the witnesses before whom he bought it, and the owner shall bring witnesses who can identif# his 'ro'ert#( The udge shall e&amine their testimon#both of the witnesses  before whom the 'rice was 'aid, and of the witnesses who identif# the lost article on oath( The merchant is then 'roved to be a thief and shall be 'ut to death( The owner of thelost article receives his 'ro'ert#, and he who bought it receives the mone# he 'aid from the estate of the merchant( 2>( $f the 'urchaser does not bring the merchant and the witnesses before whom he  bought the article, but its owner bring witnesses who identif# it, then the bu#er is the thief and shall be 'ut to death, and the owner receives the lost article( 22( $f the owner do not bring witnesses to identif# the lost article, he is an evildoer, he has traduced, and shall be 'ut to death( 23( $f the witnesses be not at hand, then shall the udge set a limit, at the e&'iration of si& months( $f his witnesses have not a''eared within the si& months, he is an evildoer, and shall bear the fine of the 'ending case( 25( $f an# one steal the minor son of another, he shall be 'ut to death( 26( $f an# one take a male or female slave of the court, or a male or female slave of a freed man, outside the cit# gates, he shall be 'ut to death( 28( $f an# one receive into his house a runawa# male or female slave of the court, or of a freedman, and does not bring it out at the 'ublic 'roclamation of the maor domus, the master of the house shall be 'ut to death( 29( $f an# one find runawa# male or female slaves in the o'en countr# and bring them to their masters, the master of the slaves shall 'a# him two shekels of silver( 2:( $f the slave will not give the name of the master, the finder shall bring him to the  'alace% a further investigation must follow, and the slave shall be returned to his master( 2;( $f he hold the slaves in his house, and the# are caught there, he shall be 'ut to death( 3>( $f the slave that he caught run awa# from him, then shall he swear to the owners of the slave, and he is free of all blame(  32( $f an# one break a hole into a house ?break in to steal@, he shall be 'ut to death before that hole and be buried( 33( $f an# one is committing a robber# and is caught, then he shall be 'ut to death( 34( $f the robber is not caught, then shall he who was robbed claim under oath the amountof his loss% then shall the communit#, and ( ( ( on whose ground and territor# and in whosedomain it was com'ensate him for the goods stolen( 35( $f 'ersons are stolen, then shall the communit# and ( ( ( 'a# one mina of silver to their relatives( 36( $f fire break out in a house, and some one who comes to 'ut it out cast his e#e u'on the 'ro'ert# of the owner of the house, and take the 'ro'ert# of the master of the house, he shall be thrown into that selfsame fire( 38( $f a chieftain or a man ?common soldier@, who has been ordered to go u'on the king7s highwa# for war does not go, but hires a mercenar#, if he withholds the com'ensation, then shall this officer or man be 'ut to death, and he who re'resented him shall take  'ossession of his house( 39( $f a chieftain or man be caught in the misfortune of the king ?ca'tured in battle@, and if his fields and garden be given to another and he take 'ossession, if he return and reaches his 'lace, his field and garden shall be returned to him, he shall take it over again(3:( $f a chieftain or a man be caught in the misfortune of a king, if his son is able to enter into 'ossession, then the field and garden shall be given to him, he shall take over the fee of his father( 3;( $f his son is still #oung, and can not take 'ossession, a third of the field and garden shall be given to his mother, and she shall bring him u'( 4>( $f a chieftain or a man leave his house, garden, and field and hires it out, and some one else takes 'ossession of his house, garden, and field and uses it for three #ears< if the first owner return and claims his house, garden, and field, it shall not be given to him, buthe who has taken 'ossession of it and used it shall continue to use it( 42( $f he hire it out for one #ear and then return, the house, garden, and field shall be given back to him, and he shall take it over again( 43( $f a chieftain or a man is ca'tured on the =Wa# of the King= ?in war@, and a merchant  bu# him free, and bring him back to his 'lace% if he have the means in his house to bu# his freedom, he shall bu# himself free< if he have nothing in his house with which to bu# himself free, he shall be bought free b# the tem'le of his communit#% if there be nothing in the tem'le with which to bu# him free, the court shall bu# his freedom( His field, garden, and house shall not be given for the 'urchase of his freedom(

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Jul 23, 2017
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