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Tiger Fact Sheet

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     T   i  g  e  r   T   i  m  e      A  n   i  m  a   l    F  a  c  t   S   h  e  e  t   C  r  i  t  i c  a  l  l  y   E  n d  a  n g  e  r e d  60 years ago 100,000 tigers roamed wild in Asia. Today, it is estimated that fewer than 3,200 tigers survive in the wild. The Royal Bengal Tiger Panthera tigris tigris - c. 1,700 left in the wild  The Indochinese Tiger Panthera tigris corbetti - c. 1000 left in the wild - none have been seen in China since 2007 The Amur Tiger Panthera tigris altaica - c. 450 left in the wild  The South China Tiger Panthera tigris amoyensis - c.20 left in the wild  The Sumatran Tiger Panthera tigris sumatrae - c.400 left in the wild  The Caspian, Javan and Balinese Tiger are all EXTINCT Tigers can live up to 15 years in the wild.Males can weigh up to 300kg and reach 1m at the shoulder. The Amur Tiger - the largest of the tiger family - can measure up to 3m from its nose to the tip of its tail. In the natural world the tiger is an apex predator - its only predator is man. Threats to tiger survival include: Loss of habitat . The staggering growth in the human population throughout the tiger’s range countries means less and less space for the tiger and the depletion of its prey forcing it into conflict with humans. Hunting.  In the first half of the 20th Century hunting for trophies and as a form of pest control, devastated  tiger numbers. It wasn’t until the 1970s that hunting was made illegal in India. Poaching. The demand for tiger parts for trophies and  traditional Chinese medicine is driving the tiger to the brink of extinction. Tigers are territorial and generally solitary.Males have large territories (marked with urine and scent) of about 24 sq km, three times larger than  the females, and may include the territories of several females. He alone will mate with each of the females in his territory. A male may kill cubs that have been fathered by other tigers so that he can mate with the female to produce his own offspring.Cubs learn from their mothers and make their first solo kill at about 18 months. But they often stay with her until they are about two and a half.Tigers reach maturity for breeding at four years old.In hot countries cubs are born throughout the year. In cold regions, they are born in the spring.Pregnancy (gestation) lasts c.4 months. Cubs are usually born in a den or cave or thick undergrowth.An average of 3-4 cubs are born in a litter but it is rare for them all to survive the first year. Age - Height - Weight Predators and ThreatsFamily LifeName and Populations  Local people must be encouraged to protect tigers by being given the opportunity to benefit financially from wildlife - tourism is often used for this purpose.Brave and dedicated rangers often risk their lives patrolling protected tiger areas to fight the war against poaching.Anti-poaching costs are high, funds are severely limited, with many tiger range states relying on overseas funding.A summit was held in St Petersburg in 2010 bringing  together the heads of the 13 tiger range states in an attempt to save the tiger from extinction and to double tiger numbers by 2020.Hoards of tiger skins and body parts are regularly seized by the authorities and conservation organizations en route to markets in the Far East and around the world.Education programmes, conservation projects, public awareness campaigns, research and co-operation with tiger countries to establish national parks are all measures being taken.   Poaching is a highly organized criminal and violent business. Tigers are poached for their fur, bones and organs (which are sold as delicacies in restaurants) or used in traditional medicines and as status symbols and lucky charms.Tigers are often caught in steel leg traps leading to a very slow and painful death. Poison and guns are also used.Despite substantial conservation efforts, poaching continues.If poaching continues at the current rate some experts predict that tigers may be extinct in the wild within 20 years. CharacteristicsAnti-PoachingPoachingThe Tiger Trade * Anti-poaching is essential but the key is to stop the  trade in tiger parts.* Trade in tigers is illegal under international law, yet it  thrives in the black markets, primarily in the Far East.* Corruption in law enforcement, lack of experience and manpower, inadequate funding and lack of political support means that the trade continues largely unhindered.* Tiger farming is an horrific part of the illegal tiger trade.* Tiger parts are used in traditional Chinese medicines as treatments for rheumatism and devil possession.* Despite the Far Eastern belief, tiger bones contain no medicinal properties.* The Chinese custom ‘jinbu’ (in which they believe  that eating tigers gives you their strength and ferocity) accounts for many tiger deaths.* An increasingly affluent Asia means more people can afford tiger products and want them as status symbols.    T   h  e    k   i   l   l   i  n  g    M   U   S   T   s   t  o  p   ! Tigers live in a variety of habitats from tropical and evergreen forests, woodlands and mangrove swamps  to grasslands and rocky country.They are the largest of the big cats.Unlike other species of cats, tigers are good swimmers and readily enter water.They have thick striped fur. Colour and markings vary between the sub-species but most have over 100 stripes. No two tigers have the same stripe patterns.Tigers hunt mainly at night, preying on a variety of species from large buffalo and deer to birds and porcupines. Tigers hunt alone (unless they are teaching their cubs) - only about one in ten attacks result in a kill. Old or sick tigers - or those living close to encroaching human populations - may become man-eaters as humans are easy prey. Given space tigers breed exceptionally well.    TigerTime and the David Shepherd Wildlife Foundation’s role in conserving the tiger:For over 50 years, David Shepherd and DSWF have been funding tiger projects in Asia and the Russian Far East. * TigerTime is helping to reduce poaching in the Russian Far East. In the 1990s, when the Amur tiger population fell to under 100, DSWF worked to increase their number to over 400 in the wild saving them from certain extinction.* TigerTime and DSWF’s support in Russia also funds important awareness and education programmes that help people understand  the importance of protecting the tiger and its wild habitat. * Working in India in Kaziranga National Park, Assam, DSWF is helping to protect one of India’s highest densities of tigers in the wild through anti-poaching programmes, wildlife crime monitoring, education and research.* In Thailand, Cambodia and Myanmar nearly 70% of villagers participating in the alternative income generating scheme no longer resort to poaching for a living. Together with enforcement  training and anti-poaching the scheme is helping to save the tiger and other wildlife species. * TigerTime and DSWF have equipped and trained forest officers fighting to save the tiger in the Sunderbans Reserve, home to about 12% of India’s surviving tigers.* TigerTime and DSWF funds enforcement training and community projects to secure the future of Thailand’s wild tiger population in Thap Lan. National Park. * Through the Asian Conservation Awareness Programme TigerTime and DSWF is successfully persuading millions of consumers of tiger parts and other wildlife products to find alternatives.* TigerTime supports Lyuti - an Amur tiger orphaned by poachers and too badly injured to fend for himself. By adopting Lyuti you can help support him and his cousins in the wild.  Join TigerTime today and help save the tiger.For more information see: www.tigertime.infoEmail: dswf@tigertime.info      P   h  o   t  o  s  c  o  u  r   t  e  s  y  o   f  :    M   i  c   h  a  e   l    V   i  c   k  e  r  s ,    G   l  o   b  a   l    S  u  r  v   i  v  a   l    N  e   t  w  o  r   k ,    P   h  o  e  n   i  x   F  u  n   d ,    F   i  r  o  z   A   h  m  e   d ,    F   R   E   E   L   A   N   D   a  n   d   t   h  e   R  o  y  a   l    T   h  a   i    P  o   l   i  c  e
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