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  27 Chapter II Review of Related Literature  28 Chapter 2 Review of related literature Introduction The focus of the present chapter is to review the research work that has already done in the area of Information Communication Technology (ICT), so as to gain a comprehensive understanding with respect to the objectives, nature, structure, presentation and effectiveness of ICT programmes and also to identify the explored areas that need to be studied with reference to various dimension of ICT programmes. An attempt was made to scan through the related literature from various resources. Papert (1980) studied on ‘Children, computer and powerful idea’. He understood the importance of digital media and how it could be used to enable children to learn better within a constructivist learning environment. He believed that in order for children to assemble and modify their ideas, the traditional tools such as pencils, copies and texts were inadequate. He felt that computers were the appropriate tool to enable the learner to take control of the learning process. He found that a complementary relationship exists  between technology and constructivism, the implementation of each one benefiting the other. Recent attempts by educators to integrate technology in the classroom have been within the context of a constructivist framework. Laird   (1985)   worked on ‘Approaches to training and development’. He believed that effective learning occurs when the senses are stimulated. Online instruction allows learners to use their sensory systems to register the information in the form of sensations. He found that the vast majority of knowledge held by adults (75%) is learned through seeing. Hearing is the next most effective (about 13%) and the other senses - touch, smell and taste account for 12% of what they know. He claims that the use of the Internet for research or producing a website to publish their project results can enhance students'  29 organizational skills, connect them with a real audience and foster a better understanding of the World Wide Web. Cameron and Ulrich  ( 1986) studied on ‘Transformational leadership in colleges and universities’. He  found that the lack of administrative support as a barrier to adoption of innovation in the Nigerian education system. Davis   (1993) in his study   ‘Tools for learning’  believes that there is no single magical formula for motivating students. Many factors affect a given students' motivation to work and to learn: Interest in subject matter, perception of its usefulness, general desire to achieve, self-confidence and self-esteem, as well as patience and persistence. With colorful and attractive graphics, interesting and illustrative animations, appropriate sound effects, ICT provides multisensory stimulations and real-world experiences. Teachers using ICT in teaching process can gain the learners' attention, motivate students to spend more time on learning activities with greater concentration, and engage them through  production work. ICT can extend the range of alternative teaching methods beyond the conventional classroom (e.g. self-paced learning, collaborative team or group activities, and distance learning). Learning with Software website   (1996)  suggested that with the use of software in learning, but it focused more on pedagogical strategies of incorporating ICT in teaching: a)   Rotational use of computers, b)    Needs-only basis, c)   Computer as reward, d)   Computer use on contract, e)   Computer as electronic blackboard, f)   Integrating the computer, g)   Computer as surrogate teacher, h)   Computer as cognitive tool.  30 The division was started from a simple tracheotomy of the degrees of integration which was more general and a bit crude. The division according to the software used was a more complicated one which included more detailed observations. The division according to  pedagogies and practices in the classrooms was better for incorporating ICT in teaching . Nason (1996) conducted study on ‘Format - free data base and the construction of knowledge in prima ry schools’. He found that when students  worked collaboratively in a small group to generate a format-free computer database, it was a very effective way of establishing a knowledge building community within a primary school classroom. Bates   (1997)  reported lack of training and skills as obstacle to ICT use in institutions of higher learning in Tanzania. Sandholtz et al.   (1997) worked on ‘Teaching with technology, creating student -centered classrooms’. They reported that there were positive changes in student attitude. Their interest and motivation typically extended to the last week of school and as students  became involved in working on computers, the time they spent on assignments and  projects often increased. Students' enthusiasm and interest resulted in greater on-task  behavior and they were highly involved in their assignment and frequently able to work with little assistance. The project increased student initiative as they worked beyond the requirements of their assignments, and independently explored new applications and developed new skills. Student experimentation and risk taking increased. Brosseuk (1998) conducted study on ‘Using a data -base in the lower primary classrooms’. He found that when student use data bases and spread sheets it leads to a real life context enhanced the teaching and learning in an enjoyable and practical way, and developed students' general thinking processes and problem solving skills. Students were enthusiastic and fascinated when using the electronic tools to solve problems. Dalton   (1998) in his study   ‘ Computers in schools ’ asserts that training is directed at changing people's knowledge, experience, skills and attitudes. The scarcity of adequately
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