2007. Past tense forms and their functions in South Conchucos Quechua: time, evidentiality, discourse structure, and affect

Characterizations of tense in language generally focus on placement in time. This study demonstrates that tense forms in South Conchucos Quechua (SCQ) not only place past situations in time, they do much more. The research centers on discovering why
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  UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Santa Barbara Past tense forms and their functions in South Conchucos Quechua: time, evidentiality, discourse structure, and affect A Dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirement for the degree Doctor of Philosophy in Linguistics  by Diane M. Hintz Committee in charge: Professor Marianne Mithun, Chair Professor Willem F. H. Adelaar Professor Bernard Comrie Professor Sandra A. Thompson December 2007   The dissertation of Diane M. Hintz is approved.  ______________________________________ Willem F. H. Adelaar  ______________________________________ Bernard Comrie  ______________________________________ Sandra A. Thompson  ______________________________________ Marianne Mithun, Committee Chair December 2007    Past tense forms and their functions in South Conchucos Quechua: time, evidentiality, discourse structure, and affect Copyright © 2007  by Diane M. Hintz iii    Acknowledgements I am happy to have the opportunity to say “Thank you!” now that this manuscript is complete. It has been an honor and a joy to have worked with Marianne Mithun and Sandy Thompson throughout my time in graduate school, and more recently, with Bernard Comrie and Willem Adelaar. One could not ask for a more encouraging, helpful, and knowledgeable group of people. I am indebted to them for their guidance through this process and for their careful work on drafts of chapters. Marianne helped me at each stage of this project, beginning with her tense, aspect and modality seminar in which we discussed literature that was foundational to this study, to absorbing and analyzing data for the seminar paper, to widening and refining the analysis and finally, to drafts of chapters. I appreciated the way she listened, thought with me and suggested possibilities of what could be happening as we looked at data. Many of her ideas led to findings presented here. She has been a teacher, an advisor and a comrade in this project. I won’t ever forget how good it has  been. Sandy has also put tremendous energy and focus and care into helping me. When I have gone into her office with a problem related to this project or to my MA  project that she supervised, she would quickly get a grasp of the data and ask questions that made me think, that got to the heart of the matter. A bigger picture would start to become visible and often then become clear. I’m grateful to her for this and so much more. She encourages me and all of her students just by being who she is and doing what she does, in her own unique way. In the early part of the project, when I was in the midst of the perplexity of the  puzzles, Bernard helped by steadily leading me back to things that are certain, things that are known from the data. He taught me to stand securely on what is known, and from that vantage point to explore what is unknown a little at a time. In several stages of the analysis, he suggested key questions to ask of the data and of native speakers that led to new insights. I’m grateful for this and for his putting his clear, logical thinking and experience with language to work on my behalf. It was a treat to meet Willem in Seville and again later in Lima, to study through data, and to find that we share a delight with Quechua languages and the patterns that can be observed in them. I’m grateful to him for giving me a wider perspective from other varieties of Quechua, both through what he has written and what he has told me personally. I am thankful to each of the faculty members of the UCSB Linguistics department, for reasons that vary as widely as their specialties. While talking with Carol Genetti about tense variation in Quechua and Dolakha Newar and studying the data, she asked questions that guided me and was the first person to dare to say, “That’s affect!” Pat Clancy taught me how to write a grant proposal, helped me with iv    several, and also pointed me to key literature on language and affect. Susanna Cumming explained how to set up a relational data base and provided instructions on her website for how to format a major linguistics work in Word. Jack Du Bois taught me the fundamentals of transcription, how to use MonoConc Pro and gave me many new perspectives on discourse analysis. Matt Gordon gave me a grounding in  prosody, taught me how to use PRAAT and worked with me on my publishable  paper. What I learned in that project helped prepare me for this one. Stefan Gries’ class on statistics for linguists and his help with the statistical part of this project were essential. Through his writings, Wally Chafe has helped me immensely. Talks and email contacts with him were also valuable as I worked on the analysis. Mary Bucholtz once said, “It takes a department to write a dissertation. All of us are happy to help you. We don’t have to be on your committee.” It has truly taken the department. Much appreciation also goes to Mary Rae Staton and Karen Barteld, the two graduate program assistants during my time here, who were generous with smiles, encouraging words and assistance in many forms. I am grateful to my fellow graduate students and to the visiting scholars for all I have learned from them and for the good times we have shared. I gratefully acknowledge support for this project received through the University of California Pacific Rim Research Program, a University of California Humanities Research Assistantship, a University of California Graduate Opportunity Fellowship, a P.E.O. (Philanthropic and Educational Organization) Scholar Award, and the Linguistics Department at UCSB. Sincere thanks are also due to Christian friends who have provided financial support and encouragement. I am grateful to David Weber for the Quechua orientation course in Lima in 1987, giving me a secure foundation on which to build. Much appreciation also goes to other SIL colleagues from whom I have learned much over the years. I am thankful to the Quechua speakers who graciously allowed their talk to be recorded and to Reida Valenzuela Mauricio, Edilberto Valenzuela Mauricio, Elías Marquez Santiago and Edwin Marquez Santiago for their patient help in the transcription of the data and for helping me to understand the meaning.  Llapan shongöwanmi agradecicullä.  Finally, thanks to my family: to my parents for having no doubt that I would succeed at whatever I tried to do, to Dan for sharing the whole graduate student experience with me as we both delved deeper into Quechua, and to Nate and Joel for  being proud and happy that their parents enjoy what they do. v
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