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(2011) Abu l-Barakat al-Bagdadi in Henrik Lagerlund (ed), Encyclopedia of Medieval Philosophy (Dordrecht, The Netherlands : Springer Verlag), 10-12.

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  Goodman LE (1975) Razi’s myth of the fall of the soul: its function in hisphilosophy. In: Hourani G (ed) Essays on Islamic philosophy andscience. Albany, pp 25–40Goodman LE (1996) Muhammad ibn Zakariyya’ al-Razi. In: Nasr SH,Leaman O (eds) History of Islamic philosophy. London, pp 198–215Gutas D (1977) Notes and texts from Cairo mss. I. Addenda to P. Kraus’edition of Abu Bakr al-Razi’s Tibb al-Ruhani. C. Moussa, Arabica24:91–93Heym G (1938) Al-Razi and alchemy. Ambix 1:184–191Iskandar AZ (1975) The medical bibliography of al-Razi. In:Hourani G (ed) Essays on Islamic philosophy and science. Albany,pp 41–46Mohaghegh M (1967) Notes on the ‘Spiritual Physic’ of al-Razi. StudiaIslamica 26:5–22Mohaghegh M (1973) Razi’s Kita¯b al-‘ilm al-ila¯hı¯ and the five eternals.Abr-Nahrain 13:16–23Partington JR (1938) The chemistry of Razi. Ambix 1:192–196Pines S (1953) Razi, critique de Galien. In: Actes du Septie`me Congre`sInternational d’Histoire des Sciences. 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Brill, LeidenTimkin O (1942) A medieval translation of Rhazes’ clinical observations.Bull Hist Med 12:102–117Urvoy D (2008) Abu¯ Bakr al-Ra¯zı¯ and Yah :  ya¯ ibn ‘Adı¯. The WarburgInstitute-Nino Aragno Editore, London-Turin, pp 63–70 Abu¯ l-Baraka¯t al-Bag˙da¯dı¯ R  OXANNE  D. M ARCOTTE The University of QueenslandAustralia Abstract In Baghdad of the first half of the twelfth century,Abu¯ al-Baraka¯t al-Bag˙da¯dı¯ not only gained notoriety primarily as an accomplished physician, but also asa resolutely independent philosopher of sorts. Collectedin his philosophical  summa  , the  Book of Evidence  , incisivecriticism of a number of Avicennan Peripatetic viewsprovides much novel philosophical insights into conceptsof space, motion and time, self-awareness, unity of soul and intellect, the active intellect, and God’sknowledge.Abu¯ l-Baraka¯t al-Bag˙da¯dı¯, also known as Hibat Alla¯h orIbn Malka, was born near Mosul into a Jewish family around 1077. He settled in Baghdad where he was even-tuallyallowed to study medicine withAbu¯ l-HasanSa‘ı¯db.Hibat Alla¯h (d. 1101). He remained on bad terms with thefamous Christian physician Ibn al-Tilmı¯dh (d. 1164), butdid manage to attract a number of medical students. Asa physician, al-Bag˙da¯dı¯ frequented the courts of Seljuqsultans and the caliphs of Baghdad. The reason for hisalleged conversion to Islam, late in life, remains uncertain,as does the date of his death (most probably in Baghdad):some believe it to be after 1164, while in his eighties (ornineties), but, according to the date on the colophon of his  Treatise on the Intellect  , it could be sometime before1157, or even as early as 1152, according to the  Tatimmat  (written after c. 1165) of Bayhaqı¯ (d. 1169) (U¨lken 1949).While al-Bag˙da¯dı¯ dabbled rather informally in philos-ophy, much of what we know derives from the threevolumes of his philosophical  summa  , the  Book of Evidence  ( Kita ¯ b al-Mu‘tabar  , 1938–1939 [henceforth:  KM  ]). Hecomposed the following works: an Arabic (in Hebrew script)  Commentary   on the  Ecclesiastes   (before his conver-sion) of which four passages have been edited, translatedinto Hebrew, and analyzed (al-Bag˙da¯dı¯ 1964); an astro- nomical work on the appearance of stars at night;a  Treatise on the Intellect   (al-Bag˙da¯dı¯ 1980; Marcotte 2004); an  Epistle on the Soul   which has yet to be edited;a  Treatise on Predestination  ; and a number of medicalworks, such as his  Abridgment of Anatomy   based onGalen’s work, a pharmacological work, and  Glosses   onAvicenna’s  Laws of Medicine  , that have not survived.In his  Commentary   on the  Ecclesiastes   (12:9) and his Book of Evidence  , al-Bag˙da¯dı¯ writes that the process of codification of knowledge from oral traditions to written‘‘esoteric’’ texts, and to texts written by unknowledgeableindividuals who attempt to explain and comment uponthose esoteric texts, corrupts the ‘‘truth’’ of the srcinaloral teachings.The  Book of Evidence  , however, contains some of hismost penetrating insights (al-T˙ayyib 2004). In this work,al-Bag˙da¯dı¯ reexamines earlier philosophical views onlogic, physics, and metaphysics. Throughout the work,he applies systematically a ‘‘methodological doubt’’ (an 10  A  Abu¯ l-Baraka¯t al-Bag˙da¯dı¯  early version of Descartes methodological skepticism)with which he subjects the views of the philosophers,only including what he is able to ascertain with his ownpersonal findings and conclusions. He achieves this by relying upon self-evident and  a priori   truths he uncoveredvia un-Aristotelian  a priori   intuitions which he deemscapable of establishing more reliable and certain knowl-edge. In the  Book of Evidence  , the importance of   a priori  knowledge provides an overall unity to this collection of personal notes (Pines 1979:96–108).In logic, al-Bag˙da¯dı¯ remains an important witness,together with Boethius, to the existence of a second Arabicversion of Themistius commentary on Aristotle’s  Topics  (of which no Greek text has survived) distinct from theone available to Averroes (Hasnawi 2004, 2007). In physics, al-Bag˙da¯dı¯ introduces novel (often morePlatonic) views on space, motion, and time, some havingbeen upheld by Abu¯ Bakr al-Ra¯zı¯ (d. 930). Contrary toprevalent Aristotelian positions, he upholds the impossi-bility of conceiving of a limited space, the existence of a three-dimensional space, and the existence of void,by appealing to self-evident truths. Prime matter is asso-ciated with the corporality of bodies as an extensionsusceptible of being measured; in addition, earth is theonly one of the four elements to be constituted of indivisible corpuscles (due to their solidity). Inspiredby Avicenna (and Philoponus), al-Bag˙da¯dı¯ developsa theory of ‘‘violent inclination’’ which came to beknown in the West as the theory of   impetus   (Pines1986). He also rejects the principle of Aristotelian dynam-ics, that a constant force produces a uniform motion,proposing thevery modern idea that the progressiveaccel-eration of a falling body is the result of the continuousaction of the principle of ‘‘natural inclination’’ found inthat body.In psychology, al-Bag˙da¯dı¯ again places  a priori   knowl-edge at the heart of his philosophical enquiries intoAvicenna’s hypothetical ‘‘suspended person’’ experimentand the associated issues of self-awareness and conscious-ness found in the latter’s  Discussions  . He affirms the pri-mary certitude of one’s own self-awareness, independentof one’s knowledge through any of the bodily facultiestraditionally associated with the external and internalfaculties. He, thus, develops a novel epistemic notion of  a priori   self-awareness (tapping into Neoplatonic views)that replaces the epistemic functions associated withthose faculties at the heart of Avicenna’s psychology. Thesoul’s self-apprehension through itself-awareness pro-vides it with ‘‘apodictic’’ certainty and access to evidenttruths (Arnaldez 1987; al-Khalifı¯ 1995). The soul’s self- awareness also provides an  a priori   proof of the soul’sindependence from the body and its immortality afterdeath.In his (postconversion)  Treatise on the Intellect  ,al-Bag˙da¯dı¯ reviews a variety of philological, scriptural,exegetical, theological, and philosophical theories(Marcotte 2004). In his  Book of Evidence  , he discards inmore detail the Avicennan Peripatetic distinction betweensoul and intellect and proposes a theory of the ‘‘unity’’ of the soul ( KM  , 2:413–417), an idea that appealed to peoplelikeFakhral-Dı¯nal-Ra¯zı¯(d.1209)(seethe Deanima  ofhis Eastern Investigations  ) and Shiha¯b al-Dı¯n al-Suhrawardı¯(d. 1191), the founder of Illuminationist Avicennism (seehis  Philosophy of Illumination  ). Conscious of its own intel-lectual activities, the soul is conscious of the internalfunctions that procure  a priori   and certain knowledge.The ensuing nominalist position does away with theforms ‘‘cognized by the intellect,’’ now that universalsare apprehended by the soul/mind as mere mental formswithout any external reality (Pines 1936:82–83; Davidson1992:154–161).In the metaphysics of the  Book of Evidence  , again a priori   knowledge reveals itself to be pivotal. An  a  priori   apperception of time (not space) takes precedenceover the various Peripatetic notions of time. No longera measure of motion, time becomes a measure of thesoul’s own  a priori   cognition of time ‘‘by, and togetherwith’’ its srcinal apperception of its own self. Timeis incorporated into a metaphysic of being. Sharingmuch with Bergson’s concept of time, his  a priori   notionof time becomes an aspect of all existents, including thebeing of God (Pines 1979:289–296; Abu¯ Sa‘da 1993; Saydabı¯ 1996). Al-Bag˙da¯dı¯ takes up neither the dominant Peripatetictheory of effusion or emanation (Haidar 1974) nor thetheoryof one single active intellect, preferring to postulatea theory of ‘‘successive divine volitions’’ ( KM  , 3:157–158,167). This introduces a plurality, preeternal or cominginto being in time, of causes. The first volition becomesan attribute of the divine essence that created the firstbeing, the highest of the angels upon which al-Bag˙da¯dı¯candevelophis‘‘angelology’’:anindeterminate numberof ‘‘spiritual angels’’ become active ‘‘supernal’’ beings thatnow function as active principles, an idea that reoccursin the works of al-Suhrawardı¯ (Pines 1979:302–319; Davidson 1992:154–161; Corbin 1971:299). Following Avicenna, al-Bag˙da¯dı¯ provides a proof from contingency of the existence of God, who remains the necessary exis-tent. Essential attributes, such as wisdom, power, andknowledge, belong to God’s essence; as for God’s Abu¯ l-Baraka¯t al-Bag˙da¯dı¯  A  11 A  knowledge, it is manifold, the knowledge of particularsresting on God’s own  a priori   knowledge of the world(Pines 1979:310–315).As for al-Bag˙da¯dı¯’s legacy, we know that his  Commen-tary   on the  Ecclesiastes   continued to be copied and studiedin the Jewish circles of Baghdad, in spite of the fact that itsauthor was said to have converted to Islam. In his philo-sophical and theological controversies with Maimonidesand Yosef ben Shimeon of Cairoover resurrection, Samuelben Eli, the Gaon of Baghdad quotes the philosophers’view regarding the soul fromal-Bag˙da¯dı¯’s  Book of Evidence  (Stroumsa 1998, 1996). Al-Bag ˙da¯dı¯’s original, yetunsystematic reevaluation of a number of philosophicalviews did not, however, have any successor, save perhapsFakhr al-Dı¯n al-Ra¯zı¯, whose own critique of AvicennanPeripateticism is said to owe much to al-Bag˙da¯dı¯’s work,as does certain views of the proponents of theIlluminationist tradition, such as al-Suhrawardı¯, IbnKammu¯na (d. 1284), and S˙adr al-Dı¯n al-Shı¯ra¯zı¯ (d.1640), also known as Mulla¯ S˙adra¯ (al-Khalifı¯ 2008). Some of his views are also mentioned by Nas : ı¯r al-Dı¯n al-T˙u¯sı¯(d. 1274), Najm al-Dı¯n al-Qazwı¯nı¯al-Ka¯tibı¯(d. 1276) and his fourteenth century commentator, and by IbnTaymiyya (d. 1328). From the late 1930 to the early 1960s,Pines (1979, 1986) pioneered the study of al-Bag ˙da¯dı¯’ssrcinal critique of the philosophical tradition; from theearly 1990s onward, authors like Abu¯ Sa‘da, al-Khalifı¯,Saydabı¯, Stroumsa, al-T˙ayyib, Hasnaoui and Marcottehave rekindled interest in his philosophical work. See also  : ▶ Arabic Philosophical Texts, Jewish Translationsof   ▶ Aristotelianism in the Greek, Latin, Syriac, Arabic,andHebrewTraditions ▶ Boethius ▶ IbnRushd,Muh˙am-mad ibn Ah˙mad al-H˙ afı¯d (Averroes) ▶ Ibn Sı¯na¯, Abu¯  ʿ Alı¯(Avicenna)  ▶ Natural Philosophy, Arabic  ▶ Philoponus,Arabic  ▶ Philosophical Theology, Jewish  ▶ Philosophy,Arabic  ▶ Plato, Arabic  ▶ Plotinus, Arabic  ▶ Porphyry,Arabic  ▶ Proclus, Arabic  ▶ Themistius, Arabic  ▶ Trans-lations from Greek into Arabic Bibliography Primary Sources al-Bag˙da¯dı¯ Abu¯ l-Baraka¯t (1938–1939) Kita¯b al-Mu‘tabar, ed. Yaltkaya S¸.3 vols. Osmania Pub., Hyderabad [see Sulayma¯n al-Nadwı¯’s study in al-Mu‘tabar, vol 3, pp 230–252; cf. S¸erefttin’s incompleteTurkish trans with intro of the Metaphysics of al-Mu‘tabar. Istanbul,1932]al-Bag˙da¯dı¯ Abu¯ l-Baraka¯t (1964) Commentaries on the Ecclesiastes, ed.Pines S. Le-h : eqer Perusho shel Abu’l-Barakat al-Baghdadi ‘al SeferQohelet.’ Tarbiz 33:198–213 [four passages of the Commentary edited with Hebrew translation and analysis; reproduced in BeinMakshevet Yisrael ve Makshevet Ha-‘Amim, Jerusalem, 1977, pp68–83; cf. Poznanski S (1913) Z Hebr Bibliogr 33–36]al-Bag˙da¯dı¯ Abu¯ l-Baraka¯t (1980) Kita¯b Sah : ı¯h :  Adillat al-Naql fı¯ Ma¯hiyyatal-‘Aql, ed. al-T˙ayyib A. Un traite´ d’al-Baghdadi sur l’intellect.Annales islamologiques 16:127–147 Secondary Sources Abu¯ Sa‘da MH (1993) al-Wuju¯d wa l-Khulu¯d fı¯ Falsafat Abı¯ al-Baraka¯tal-Bag˙da¯dı¯. Faculty of Arts, Asiout University, CairoArnaldez R (1987) La doctrine de l’aˆme dans la philosophie d’Abuˆ’l-Barakaˆt al-Baghdaˆdıˆ. Studia Islamica 66:105–112Corbin H (1971) En Islam iranien; aspects spirituels et philosophiques II.Sohrawardıˆ et les platoniciens de Perse. Gallimard, ParisDavidson HA (1992) Alfarabi, Avicenna, and Averroes on intellect.Oxford University Press, OxfordHaidar A (1974) La the´orie de l’e´manation chez Avicenne, al-Baghdadi etSohrawardi. PhD dissertation, ParisHasnawi AN (2004) Taxinomie topique: la classification the´miste´enne deslieux chez Boe`ce, Averroe`s et Abuˆ al-Barakaˆt al-Baghdaˆdıˆ. In:Arnzen R, Thielmann J (eds) Words, texts and concepts cruisingthe Mediterranean Sea. Peeters, Leuven, pp 245–248Hasnawi A (2007) Boe`ce, Averroe`s et Abuˆ al-Barakaˆt al-Baghdaˆdıˆ,te´moins des e´crits de The´mistius sur les Topiques d’Aristote. ArabicSci Philos 12:203–265 [excerpts translated into French]al-Khalı¯fı¯ A (2008) Naqd Abı¯ al-Baraka ¯t al-Bag˙da¯dı¯ li-Naz˙ariyyat al-S˙u¯ralada¯ al-Mashsha¯’iyya al-Isla¯miyya wa Atharuhu fı¯ l-Madrasaal-Ishra¯qiyya. AFKAR Journal of Aqidah and Islamic Thought9:185–222al-Khelaifi A (1995) The psychology of Abu al-Barakaˆt al-Baghdaˆdıˆ. PhDdissertation, University of ManchesterMarcotte RD (2004) La conversion tardive d’un philosophe: Abu¯ al-Baraka¯t al-Baghda¯dı¯ (mort vers 545/1150) sur ‘L’Intellect et saquiddite´.’ Documenti e Studi Sulla Tradizione Filosofica Medievale15:201–226Pines S (1936) Beitra¨ge zur islamischen Atomenlehre. Gra¨fenhainichen,Gedruckt bei A. Hein GmbH, BerlinPines S (1979) The collected works of Shlomo Pines, 5 vols, vol 1: Studiesin Abu¯ l-Baraka¯t al-Baghda¯dı¯. Physics and Metaphysics. Magnes/Brill, Jeusalem/Leiden [contains five major studies]Pines S (1986) The collected works of Shlomo Pines, 5 vols, vol 2: Studiesin Arabic versions of Greek texts and in mediaeval science. Magnes/Brill, Jerusalem/Leiden [contains two major studies]Saydabı¯JR (1996) Abu¯ al-Baraka¯t al-Bag˙da¯dı¯wa- Falsafatuhu al-Ila¯hiyya:Dira¯sa li-Mawqifihi al-Naqdı¯ min Falsafat Ibn Sı¯na¯. MaktabatWahba, CairoStroumsa S (1996) Compassion for wisdom: the attitude of some medi-eval Arab philosophers towards the codification of philosophy.Bochumer philosophisches Jahrbuch fu¨r Antike und Mittelalter1:39–55Stroumsa S (1998) Twelfth century concepts of soul and body: theMaimonidean controversy in Baghdad. In: Baumgarten AI,Assmann J, Stroumsa G (eds) Self, soul and body in religious expe-rience. Brill, Leiden, pp 313–334 (cf. her earlier work (1993) Onthe Maimonidean controversy in the East: the role of Abual-Barakat al-Baghdadi. In: Ben-Shammai H (ed) Hebrew and Arabic studies in Honour of Joshua Blau. Tel Aviv/Jerusalem,pp 415–422; in Hebrew)al-T˙ayyib A (2004) al-Ja¯nib al-Naqdı¯ fı¯ Falsafat Abı¯ al-Baraka ¯t al-Bag˙da¯dı¯min al-Falsafa al-Mashsha¯’iyya. Da¯r al-Shuru¯q, Cairo U¨lken HZ (1949) Un philosophe de l’islam: Ebu-l-Berekat Bagdadi. In:Beth EW, Pos HJ (eds) Proceeding of the 10th international congressof philosophy, 1948. North-Holland, Amsterdam (cf. his Turkishwork (1949) Ebu ‘l-Bereqaˆt Bagdaˆdıˆ (1076–1166). Felsefe Arkivi 2.3) 12  A  Abu¯ l-Baraka¯t al-Bag˙da¯dı¯
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