xi PART II THEME FIVE THROUGH THE EYES OF TRAVELLERS 115 Perceptions of Society (c. tenth to seventeenth century) THEME SIX BHAKTI-SUFI TRADITIONS 140 Changes in Religious Beliefs and Devotional Texts (c. eighth to eighteenth century) THEME SEVEN AN IMPERIAL CAPITAL: VIJAYANAGARA 170 (c. fourteenth to sixteenth century) THEME EIGHT PEASANTS, ZAMINDARS AND THE STATE 196 Agrarian Society and the Mughal Empire (c. sixteenth-seventeenth centuries) THEME NINE KINGS AND CHRONICLES 224 The Mughal Co
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  xi  PART II T HEME  F IVE  THROUGH THE EYES OF TRAVELLERS 115 Perceptions of Society ( c  . tenth to seventeenth century) T HEME  S IX BHAKTI-SUFI TRADITIONS 140 Changes in Religious Beliefsand Devotional Texts( c  . eighth to eighteenth century) T HEME  S EVEN  AN IMPERIAL CAPITAL: VIJAYANAGARA  170 ( c  . fourteenth to sixteenth century) T HEME  E IGHT PEASANTS, ZAMINDARS AND THE STATE 196  Agrarian Society and the Mughal Empire( c  . sixteenth-seventeenth centuries) T HEME  N INE KINGS AND CHRONICLES  224  The Mughal Courts( c  . sixteenth-seventeenth centuries)* Part III will follow  PART III* T HEME  T EN COLONIALISM AND THE COUNTRYSIDEExploring Official Archives T HEME  E LEVEN REBELS AND THE RAJ1857 Revolt and Its Representations CONTENTSCONTENTS  xii  T HEME  T WELVE COLONIAL CITIESUrbanisation, Planningand Architecture T HEME  T HIRTEEN MAHATMA GANDHI AND THENATIONALIST MOVEMENT Civil Disobedience and Beyond T HEME  F OURTEEN UNDERSTANDING PARTITIONPolitics, Memories, Experiences T HEME  F IFTEEN FRAMING THE CONSTITUTION The Beginning of a New Era  PART I (Pages 1-114) T HEME  O NE BRICKS, BEADS AND BONES The Harappan Civilisation T HEME  T WO KINGS, FARMERS AND TOWNSEarly States and Economies( c  . 600 BCE -600 CE ) T HEME  T HREE KINSHIP, CASTE AND CLASSEarly Societies( c  . 600 BCE -600 CE ) T HEME  F OUR  THINKERS, BELIEFS AND BUILDINGSCultural Developments( c  . 600 BCE -600 CE ) xii   115  Women and men have travelled in search of work, to escapefrom natural disasters, as traders, merchants, soldiers,priests, pilgrims, or driven by a sense of adventure. Those who visit or come to stay in a new landinvariably encounter a world that is different:in terms of the landscape or physicalenvironment as well as customs, languages, beliefs and practices of people. Many of themtry to adapt to these differences; others,somewhat exceptional, note them carefully in accounts, generally recording what they findunusual or remarkable. Unfortunately, we havepractically no accounts of travel left by women, though we know that they travelled. The accounts that survive are often varied in terms of their subject matter. Some deal with affairs of the court, while others are mainly focused on religious issues, or architectural features and monuments. For example, oneof the most important descriptions of the city of  Vijayanagara (Chapter 7) in the fifteenth century comesfrom Abdur Razzaq Samarqandi, a diplomat who came visiting from Herat.In a few cases, travellers did not go to distant lands. For example, in the Mughal Empire (Chapters 8 and 9),administrators sometimes travelled within theempire and recorded their observations. Someof them were interested in looking at popular customs and the folklore and traditions of their own land.In this chapter we shall see how our knowledge of the past can be enrichedthrough a consideration of descriptions of social life provided by travellers who visitedthe subcontinent, focusing on the accounts of threemen: Al-Biruni who came from Uzbekistan (eleventhcentury), Ibn Battuta who came from Morocco, innorthwestern Africa (fourteenth century) and theFrenchman François Bernier (seventeenth century). Through the Eyes of Travellers Perceptions of Society Perceptions of Society Perceptions of Society Perceptions of Society Perceptions of Society ((((( c c c c c  . tenth to seventeenth century). tenth to seventeenth century). tenth to seventeenth century). tenth to seventeenth century). tenth to seventeenth century) THEME FIVE Fig. 5.1b  A coconut   The coconut and the  paan   were things that struck many travellers as unusual. Fig. 5.1a  Paan  leaves 


Jul 23, 2017


Jul 23, 2017
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