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A DISPUTABLE PERCEPTION OF INTELLIGENCE: HOW ENGLISH PROFICIENCY MEASURES THE STUDENTS' INTELLECTUAL ABILITY

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The study investigated the relationship between English proficiency and the intellectual ability of students. The study employed a descriptive-correlational (prediction studies) research design. Stratified random sampling was applied to gather the
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  A DISPUTABLE PERCEPTION OF INTELLIGENCE: HOW ENGLISH PROFICIENCY MEASURES THE STUDENTS’ INTELLECTUAL ABILITY   Paul Marx T. Alpuerto, Princess Joy P. Bastasa, Mendy Joyce P. Cornelio, McVrengyl B. Racho Abstract The study investigated the relationship between English proficiency and the intellectual ability of students. The study employed a descriptive-correlational (prediction studies) research design. Stratified random sampling was applied to gather the target sample population of Senior High School students. In total, the sample acquired was 274 students, 156 from Grade 11 and 118 from Grade 12. The researchers utilized a revised 30 item English proficiency test to measure the level of English proficiency and in measuring the level of intellectual ability, 25 item IQ test was adapted. Test Item analysis was used to validate the reliability of the two adapted test questionnaires. To acquire the level of English proficiency and intellectual ability, mean was utilized. The study revealed that STEM strand had the highest level of English proficiency. Followed by ABM, Arts and Design, and HUMSS, while the GAS had the lowest English proficiency. As for the level of intellectual ability, STEM had the highest level. Followed by ABM, GAS, and HUMSS, while Arts and Design had the lowest level of intellectual ability. Furthermore, using a Pearson product-moment correlation, the study found that there is a positive high correlation between English proficiency and intellectual ability. On the other hand, a significant relationship was also found. The researchers recommend students to enhance their English skills to develop their general knowledge, monitoring on students should be done by the teachers, and further research must be done using other methods and parameters to acquire the level of English proficiency and intellectual ability.  _____________________________________________________________________________________ Introduction The English language first started from the invasion of Germanic tribes in Britain during the 5th Century A.D. English was derived from the Angles Tribes from ‘‘England’’ where the language was then derived into “English” [1]. Today, the English language is found to be one of the languages spoken in which people all around the globe use. According to statistics, 20% of the earth’s population are English speakers where 360 million people speak English as their first language. The language was identified as by far the most commonly studied language in the world [2]. This led the language to become a medium in communication, a global language or lingua franca which pave the way to the existence of English in the different sectors in the society such as in business, and academic. English had been used as the basis in all human activities which includes life opportunities [3]. In view of this, English proficiency as a measurement on intelligence had been an ongoing debatable topic throughout the groups of various people. The most common perceptions of people lie within the idea that people who are intellectuals revealed to have a great level of English proficiency. Intelligence, as defined as the ability to apply knowledge, can be tested through intelligent quotient (IQ) which is equal to the mental age divided by the chronological age [4]. Most of the existing research on English proficiency and intellectual ability greatly focuses on the relationship between the variables and discussed the level of proficiency of students and how it relates to the students’ performance. The research exist as it utilized private university students from distinct faculties, engineering, business administration, I.T, and veterinary science where grade point average (GPA) was used and paired to the outcomes of English proficiency assessment to identify its difference and correlation. The existing research showed complications such as it mostly focused on its significant difference. Furthermore, other factors should be  considered for a clear and concise relationship between the variable [5]. Several studies were conducted to investigate the English proficiency, multilingualism or bilingualism and intellectual ability of students which revealed to have numerous records towards the effect of English proficiency on students. Such as the variables revealed to have a significant difference in language proficiency and multilingualism via statistical analyses in relation to academic performance and that high GPA yield to the existence of high level perceived English language proficiency and among students who are multilinguistic [6]. On the other hand, findings also showed how English proficiency may be less important in terms of improving academic performance among students who are under that engineering and architecture course [7]. As of another study, nursing students who were bilingual are found to have difficulties in understanding the second language in clinical practice. The result further suggested how the students’ grade was correlated to English proficiency such as in the use of English in terms of reading and writing [8]. These studies showed implications towards the strong relationship of the variables, English proficiency and Intellectual Ability of students. Where factors involved in both variables and the difference in the case of the effect English proficiency has in terms of grade, should be greatly considered. The relationship of English proficiency of students and intellectual ability that has been studied by researchers had only focused on a certain sample population in a specific field where most of the sample were university students and grades in elementary. Furthermore, the previous studies did not consider other factors that may affect the relationship of the research variables and only focuses on the GPA of students as a reference of intellect and how English proficiency cam affect it. Hence, a study was established by the current researchers to acquire broader knowledge. Thus, in the current study, a much broader sample population was considered along with the indicators under English proficiency and the demographic profile of students. Moreover, a new method and approach of identifying the intellectual ability were applied by the researchers to investigate and show more convincing results. The current study is anchored to the theories entitled “Planni ng, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive (PASS) Theory” revised by Naglieri and Das (2005), theory “Cattell - Horn- Carroll (CHC) Theory of Cognitive Abilities” by Flanagan and Dixon (2014) and Spearman’s “g” factor Theory cited from the study of Rudd and Honkiss (2019) . The PASS Theory explained its attempt to revive intentions of early intelligence test developers by taking a multidimensional approach to the definition of ability. The theory mainly lies in the use of cognitive processes rather than general ability. It further suggest how PASS Theory is identified as a modern alternative to general intelligence and IQ, based on the neuropsychology and cognitive psychology. Furthermore the acronym of the theory involves the executive function and overall organizing mental forms, moderation of mental arousal and focus, pattern recognition, understanding relationships and organizing sequences (Wilson, 2017). The CHC Theory of Cognitive  Abilities by Flanagan and Dixon (2014) focuses on the impressive body of empirical support in various research literatures such as in developmental, neurocognitive, and outcome-criterion of an individual. The CHC theory can be used for the foundation of selecting, organizing an interpreting tests of intelligence and cognitive abilities. In addition, the theory is essential for classifying intelligence and achievement batteries and neuropsychological tests to facilitate interpretation of cognitive performances and provide a foundation for  organizing assessments for individuals with learning disability. On the other hand, Spearman’s “g” theory cited from the study entitled “Analysing the Correlation between English Proficiency and Academic Performance among Thai Students” by Rudd and Honkiss (2019), explained how general intelligence (g) factor affect the perception that all tasks on intelligence tests where influenced by the factor. Furthermore, the g factor analysis is used to examine the correlation between intelligence-associated variables that are related cognitively. The theories stated above greatly refers to the intelligence of an individual which is one of the variables in the current study. Thus, these frameworks will serve as the foundation in the conceptualization of the study that will allow the researchers to create a conceptual framework which relates to the researchers’ aim of analyzing the relationship of English proficiency and intellectual ability of an individual. Moreover, the researchers would like to investigate the relationship of English proficiency and the intellectual ability of students and how the level of English proficiency of students measures heir intellect. Figure 1 shows the schema of the study which shows the relationship of English Proficiency of Students and Intellectual ability. The independent variable is the English proficiency of students and the dependent variable is the intellectual ability of students. The participants profile will serve as intervening variables which can affect the relationship of the dependent and independent variable. Figure 1. Schema of the study    The study investigates the relationship of English proficiency and intellectual ability on students. Furthermore, the study specifically sought to answer the following: 1.What is the demographic profile of students in terms of: Age, Gender, Grade Level, and Socio Economic Status 2. What is the level of English proficiency of students in terms of strand: ABM, Arts and Design, GAS, HUMMS, and STEM 3.What is the level of intellectual ability of students in terms of strand: ABM, Arts and Design, GAS, HUMMS, and STEM 4. Is there a significant relationship between the level of English proficiency and intellectual ability of students?   The study employed a quantitative research design specifically a descriptive-correlational (prediction studies) research design. Stratified random sampling was used to identify the sample population of the study. The target population of the study were the High School students. The current study specifically focused on grades 11 and 12 students. The target sample size was 274 students comprising of 156 students from Grade 11 and 118 students from Grade 12. The students were provided with 2 sets of test that are used to measure the level of English proficiency and intellectual ability. The adaptive tests used by the researchers was a validated data collection tool used in measuring the students’ level in English proficiency and intellectual ability. The questionnaire used by the researchers were revised and improved which includes a 30 item English proficiency test adapted from the Oxford University Press 2010, Oxford University Press and University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate 2001 and Reading Comprehension Study Guide and Practice test 2015 that will help measure the students’ grammar, voc abulary and reading com comprehension abilities. The English proficiency of students was interpreted with a scaled score, along with its percentage and an adjective description. Furthermore, a 25 item IQ test was adapted  from the Wonderlictestsample.com to measure the intellectual ability of students through the Wechsler (WAIS-III) IQ scale from the calculated percentage of the test. The strength and direction of the relationship of the variables, English proficiency and intellectual ability were analyzed through the Pearson product moment correlation. The questions given in the tests are based on the topic the researchers are conducting. Experts in the topic evaluated the reliability and validity of the adaptive tests. Test Item analysis was also use for the reliability of the two tests adapted for the study. In addition, MS (Microsoft) Excel and was used to analyze, calculate the coefficient and determine whether the instruments were reliability.   The collected numerical data was analyzed through MS (Microsoft) Excel and SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences). The percentage and mean scores obtained was used to determine the description of data. Furthermore, Pearson product moment correlation was used to analyzed and interpret the strength of rel ationship between the students’ English proficiency and intellectual ability. Table 1 Interpretation and Description of the Level of English Proficiency of Students RANGE INTERPRETATION DESCRIPTION 24 - 30 Very High English Proficiency The students are very competent and knowledgeable in English. 18  –  23.99 High English Proficiency The students are competent and knowledgeable in English. 12  –  17.99  Average English Proficiency The students are moderately competent and knowledgeable in English. 6  –  11.99 Low English Proficiency The students are not competent and knowledgeable in English. 0  –  5.99 Very Low English Proficiency The students are very not competent and knowledgeable in English. Table 2 Interpretation and Description of the Level of Intellectual Ability of Students RANGE INTERPRETATION DESCRIPTION 20 - 25 Very High Intellectual Ability The students are very educated in general knowledge. 15  –  19.99 High Intellectual  Ability The students are educated in general knowledge. 10  –  14.99  Average Intellectual  Ability The students are moderately educated in general knowledge. 5  –  9.99 Low Intellectual  Ability The students are not educated enough in general knowledge. 0  –  4.99 Very Low Intellectual Ability The students are not very educated in general knowledge. Results and Discussion  A frequency count was done to acquire the demographic profile of the total students who participated. For the age, 251 (91.606%) were 16 to 18, 22 (8.029%) were 19 above and, 1 (0.365%) was 15 above. For the gender, 175 (63.869%) were female, and 99 (36.131%) were male. For grade level, 156 (56.934%) were from  Grade 11, and 118 (43.067%) were from Grade 12. Moreover for the socio-economic status, 229 (83.577%) were from middle class, 23 (8.394%) were from low class, and 22 (8.029%) were from high class. On the other hand for the strands of the students, 96 (35.036%) were from HUMSS, 79 (28.832%) were from STEM, 50 (18.248%) were from ABM, 30 (10.949%) were from GAS, and 19 (6.934%) were from Arts and Design (Table 1). Table 3 Distribution of Age, Gender, Grade Level, Socio-Economic Status and Strand The researchers utilized mean to acquire the level of English proficiency of students. The strand with the highest mean was STEM with 19.418, interpreted to as “high English proficiency”. This means that the students are competent and knowledgeable in English. This is then followed by ABM with a mean of 17.8, Arts and Design with a mean of 13.94, HUMSS with a mean of 13.490, and GAS with 13.2.  All of these were interpreted to as “average English proficiency”, implying that the students are moderately competent and knowledgeable in English. The total mean for the level of English proficiency of students was 15.570 interpreted to as “average English proficiency” . This entailed that the students were moderately competent and knowledgeable in English. This result was in accordance to the study conducted by Racca and Lasaten (2016) where the authors found that the students had accumulated an average English language proficiency level [9]. Figure 1. Level of English Proficiency of Students  The researchers used mean to gather the level of intellectual ability of students. Among all the strands, STEM had the highest mean of 15.481 interpreted to as “high intellectual ability”, meaning the students are educated in general knowledge. This is followed by ABM with a mean of 13.980 and GAS with 10.2. Both are interpreted as “average intellectual ability”. This implies that the students from both strands are moderately educated in general knowledge. On the other hand, HUMSS had a mean of 9.281 and the lowest of all strands was Arts and Design with a mean of 7.790. Both of these are interpreted to as “low intellectual ability” which means that the students are not educated enough in general knowledge. The total mean acquired for the intellectual ability of the students was 11.346 interpreted to as “average intellectual ability” implying that the students were moderately educated in general knowledge. This result is in contradictory to the study conducted by Rani and Prakash (2015) where the authors found that the average intelligence test scores of students is below average [10]. Demographic Variables Indices Number %  Age 15 above 1 0.365 16 - 18 251 91.606 19 above 22 8.029 Gender Female 175 63.869 Male 99 36.131 Grade Level Grade 11 156 56.934 Grade 12 118 43.067 Socio-Economic Status Low Class 23 8.394 Middle Class 229 83.577 High Class 22 8.029 Strand  ABM 50 18.248  Arts and Design 19 6.934 GAS 30 10.949 HUMSS 96 35.036 STEM 79 28.832
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