Arts & Architecture

A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK TO PROMOTE AND SUSTAIN SUSTAINABLE BEHAVIOUR IN BUILT ENVIRONMENT.

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Recent research suggests that occupants’ behavior has a huge impact on the energy performance of the building, but is also regarded as a leading factor in uncertainty when determining the effectiveness of the energy systems. Green buildings that fail
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   A PROPOSAL FOR A THEORECTICAL FRAMEWORK TO PROMOTE AND SUSTAIN SUSTAINABLE BEHAVIOUR IN BUILT ENVIRONMENT. by GAUTHAM SELVAMOHAN Volume 1 of 1 The thesis is submitted to University College Dublin in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Research Masters in: School of Architecture, Planning and Environmental Policy Head of School: Peter Clinch Principal Supervisor: Paul Kenny AUGUST, 2019  1 Abstract   Recent research suggests that occupants’ behaviour has a huge impact on the energy performance of the building, but is also regarded as a leading factor in uncertainty when determining the effectiveness of the energy systems. Green buildings that fail to meet predicted performance indicate the same. Due to inaccurate description of occupant behaviour and the complexity in measuring or quantifying occupant behaviour, human influences on the built environment has been either simplified or ignored in the pre-design, design and construction stages. This research aims to explore the relationship between the design process and occupant behaviour to understand the potential areas of improvement and changes (in the design process) that could provide efficient solutions in terms energy conservation. For this the design process of a successful eco-village was studied and analysed along with the other design processes. The analysis revealed that the existing design process intents to prioritize environmental and economic factors over social factors. To improve and stabilize this the research also proposes a theoretical framework that could function as a support diagram for designers in understanding the behavioural needs of occupants and devising the strategies accordingly. The existing behavioural theories were studied along with the energy saving strategies to understand the variables involved and correlation between them. The framework works in four stages; identifying the primary determinants, defining the targets, choosing an appropriate energy strategy and revaluating the strategies based on previously reported discomfort. To determine the usability of the proposed framework, it was assessed based on the impressions of four experts from various disciplines. The result show that though the framework presents a number of unavoidable uncertainties, it is applicable and is a necessary step towards the right direction.  2 Table of Contents List of Figures ................................................................................................................................. 4   List of Tables .................................................................................................................................. 5   Acknowledgements ......................................................................................................................... 6   Dedication ....................................................................................................................................... 7   Chapter 1 - Introduction .................................................................................................................. 8   1.1 Objectives ............................................................................................................................. 8   1.2   Context and Background................................................................................................. 8   1.3 Outline of thesis. ................................................................................................................. 11   Chapter 2 - Literature review ........................................................................................................ 12   2.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 12   2.2. Defining Sustainable Behaviour. ................................................................................... 14   2.4. Development of Behaviour Studies ................................................................................... 18   2.4.1. Government Initiatives ................................................................................................ 18   2.4.2. Design for sustainable behaviour ................................................................................ 19   2.5. Towards Sustainable behaviour ......................................................................................... 21   2.5.1 Theories  –   General Overview ...................................................................................... 22   2.5.1.1 Theory of planned behavior. ................................................................................. 24   2.5.1.2 Theory of interpersonal behavior. ......................................................................... 26   2.5.1.3 The Norm Activation Model ................................................................................. 27   2.5.1.4 The Value belief norm theory. .............................................................................. 29   2.5.2. Behavior Models / Policy Instruments. ....................................................................... 30   2.5.2.1 The 4Es Model. ..................................................................................................... 30   2.5.2.2 NUDGE................................................................................................................. 32   2.5.2.3 MINDSPACE. ...................................................................................................... 35   2.5.3 Design for Sustainable Behaviour. .................................................................................. 39   2.6. Design process. .................................................................................................................. 42   Chapter 3 - Methodology .............................................................................................................. 49   3.1 Introduction. ........................................................................................................................ 49   3.2 Cloughjordan Eco-village. .................................................................................................. 49   3.3 Interview ............................................................................................................................. 51   Chapter 4 - Case Study. ................................................................................................................ 53   4.1 Introduction. ........................................................................................................................ 53   4.2 Cloughjordan Eco-village  –   Design Process. ..................................................................... 53    3 4.3 Occupant behaviour and Design process. ........................................................................... 56   4.3.1 Cloughjordan Eco-village and the Integrated design process. ..................................... 57   4.3.1 Inference....................................................................................................................... 58   Chapter 5 - Proposal for a framework........................................................................................... 61   5.1 Formulation of the framework. ....................................................................................... 61   5.2 Primary Determinants. .................................................................................................... 63   5.3 Defining Targets. ............................................................................................................ 66   5.4 Strategies. ........................................................................................................................ 67   5.5 Rethinking / revaluating: ................................................................................................. 68   Chapter 6  –   Discussion. ................................................................................................................ 71   6.1 Results and Concerns: ..................................................................................................... 71   6.2 Addressing the Discrepancy............................................................................................ 72   5.3 Potential of the framework:............................................................................................. 74   Chapter 7  –   Conclusion. ................................................................................................................ 76   7.1 Review of Objectives: ..................................................................................................... 76   7.2 Recommendations: .......................................................................................................... 78   References ............................................................................................................................. 79   Appendix ....................................................................................................................................... 86    4 List of Figures Figure 1 Interdisciplinary research areas of energy social and information science ...................... 9   Figure 2 Theory of Planned Behavior ........................................................................................... 24   Figure 3 Theory of interpersonal Behavior ................................................................................... 26   Figure 4 Norm Activation Model as Moderator and Mediator Model ......................................... 28   Figure 5 Value Belief Norm theory . ............................................................................................ 29   Figure 6 - The 4Es Mode ............................................................................................................. 31   Figure 7 Defra's Triangle of Change ............................................................................................. 32   Figure 8 The 6Es framework ........................................................................................................ 35   Figure 9 Defra's Policy Cycle ....................................................................................................... 36   Figure 10 Integrated Design Process ........................................................................................... 46   Figure 11 The Proposed Framework............................................................................................. 62   Figure 12 Revised Framework ...................................................................................................... 73  
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