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Anti-immigrant Sentiment, Rising Populism, and the Oaxacan Trump

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Anti-immigrant Sentiment, Rising Populism, and the Oaxacan Trump
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  Anti-immigrant Sentiment, Rising Populism, and the Oaxacan Trump  Jared P. Van Ramshorst Journal of Latin American Geography, Volume 17, Number 1, April 2018,pp. 253-256 (Article)Published by University of Texas PressFor additional information about this article Access provided by your local institution (27 Apr 2018 22:17 GMT) https://muse.jhu.edu/article/692068  󰀲󰀵󰀳  󰁨󰁥 󰁥󰁬󰁥󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁯󰁦 󰁄󰁯󰁮󰁡󰁬󰁤 󰁔󰁲󰁵󰁭󰁰 marked a period o inense ani-immi-gran naionalism and rising populism in he U.S. From promises o “build he wall” o ver- bal atacks on Mexican immigrans, rump’s presidenial campaign mobilized widespread racial anxieies and xenophobia. Similarly, ani-immigran senimen has surged across Europe in counries like he Czech Republic, Denmark, Hungary, Ausria, and Germany. Tese developmens have signaled a dramaic shif oward populis movemens, exclusion-ary poliics, and virulen naionalism. More recenly, however, ani-immigran senimen has suraced in unexpeced places, ouside he convenional conexs o Europe and he U.S. In souhern Mexico, a rural polii-cian described as he “Oaxacan rump” has ouched off an aggressive campaign agains Cenral American migrans, garnering popu-lar suppor or he closure o a local migran sheler. Tese endencies, confirmed by my recen fieldwork in he area, draw atenion o he significance o ani-immigran senimen and rising populism in Lain America, where conflics over naional ideniy, erriory, and immigraion are playing ou.In he 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀰s, Mexico has again become a place o ransi or Cenral American migrans.  While raes o migraion rom Mexico have allen o hisoric lows, oumigraion rom Cenral America 󲀔 promped by civil unres, gang violence, and economic inse-curiy 󲀔 has risen o unprecedened highs (Massey e al. 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀴). El Salvador, Guaemala, and Honduras now represen he leading source o unauhorized migraion o he U.S., oupacing any oher world region (Chishi and Hipsman 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀶). Wih such high raes o migraion norhward, he area exending rom Cenral America o he U.S.-Mexico  border has become a coniguous “migraion region” (Jonas and Rodríguez 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀴), where Cenral American migrans raverse Mexico o reach he U.S.o curail his migraory shi, Mex-ico 󲀔 wih suppor rom he U.S. 󲀔 has implemened exensive securiy measures and aggressive immigraion enorcemen (see Miller 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀴). Accordingly, migrans ravelling across Mexico have urned o clan-desine, ofen dangerous, journeys o reach he U.S., sopping off in migran shelers or respie and saey along he way. Scatered hroughou urban ceners and rural areas across Mexico, shelers provide humani-arian assisance such as ood, waer, and medical atenion, as well as legal aid and counsel. While some migrans say or days and weeks, ohers remain in hese shelers or monhs and someimes years. Shelers, hereore, have become key poins o ransi Anti-immigrant Sentiment, Rising Populism, and the Oaxacan Trump  Jared P. Van Ramshorst  Department of GeographySyracuse University  󰀲󰀵󰀴  󰁊󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁯󰁦 󰁌󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁮 󰁁󰁭󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁣󰁡󰁮 󰁇󰁥󰁯󰁧󰁲󰁡󰁰󰁨󰁹 o Cenral American migrans in he local sheler (Rasgado 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀷). A majoriy o resi-dens suppored Ramos’ view ha migrans caused significan “problems or he popula-ion” (ourliere 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀷). Evenually, he own eliminaed he sheler in July 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀷. Soon afer is closure, nearby municipaliies rejeced a proposed relocaion o he sheler. Now, migrans mus walk over 󰀱󰀰󰀰 miles o reach he neares sheler, locaed along a srech known o migrans as “he gaeway o Hell.” Working in he sheler in he monhs  beore is closure, I winessed he hosil-iy and discriminaion direced a Cenral  American migrans who were ofen labelled as criminals and delinquens by ownspeo-ple. In my inerviews wih residens, hey  voiced concerns over he recen increase in migraion rom Cenral America, suggesing and suppor along Cenral Americans’ migra-ory roues, ransorming Mexican ciies and owns ino sraegic sies o encouner and assisance (Basok e al. 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀵).In he souhern Mexican sae o Oaxaca, hese developmens have sparked recen conflics over naional ideniy, erriory, and immigraion. Drawing on populis suppor and anxieies over migraion rom Cenral  America, he mayor o Chahuies has orced he closure and relocaion o a local migran sheler (Fig. 󰀱). Nicknamed he “Oaxacan rump” by immigraion aciviss (Rasgado 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀷), Leobardo Ramos mobilized an aggres-sive campaign agains Cenral American migrans. Galvanizing local ani-immigran senimen, he mayor described migrans as “roublemakers” and “unruly,” linking an increase in municipal crime o he presence Figure 󰀱 󰀮 Migrant shelter󰀬 Chahuites󰀬 Oaxaca󰀬 Mexico before its closure in 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀷󰀮 Photo by author󰀮  󰀲󰀵󰀵 󰁰󰁥󰁲󰁳󰁰󰁥󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁶󰁥󰁳 ha i was a pressing issue or people in own.  Ani-immigran senimen was a consan, as migrans experienced everyday harassmen, inimidaion, and oher ypes o violence. Such discriminaion is no new. Racism and  xenophobia oward Cenral Americans has long exised in pars o Mexico, and he emer-gence o he Oaxacan rump is jus he mos recen and visible example o hese pervasive atiudes.hese evens in souhern Mexico call atenion o he rise o ani-immigran pol-iics and populism in Lain America. From  Argenina’s rump-esque immigraion order (see Romero and Polii 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀷) o ani-reu-gee proess in Brazil (see Langlois 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀷), ani-immigran senimen has aken hold in he region. Geographers o Lain America are paricularly well-posiioned o examine hese dynamics, which are grounded in racial anxieies, xenophobia, and naional hyse-ria. As Finn and Hanson (󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀷) highlighed, scholars mus atend o he various enan-glemens o power ha provoke violence and inequaliy hroughou he region. Te implicaions o ani-immigran senimen and rising populism in Lain America are no  ye enirely clear, however, or geographers ineresed in challenging undersandings o immigraion and ciizenship in he rump era (Finn 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀷), hese conflics over naional ideniy, erriory, and immigraion will con-inue o have disproporional impacs on he region’s mos vulnerable. 󰁒󰁥󰁦󰁥󰁲󰁥󰁮󰁣󰁥󰁳 Basok, ., D. Bélanger, M. L. Rojas Wiesner, and G. Candiz. 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀵. Rethinking transit migration:  precarity, mobility, and self-making in Mexico . New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Chishi, M. and F. Hipsman. 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀶. Increased Cenral American migraion o he Unied Saes may prove an enduring phenomenon. Migraion Policy Insiue, February 󰀱󰀸, 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀶. Available a: htps://www.migraionpolicy.org/aricle/increased-cenral-american-migraion-unied-saes-may-prove-enduring-phenomenon.Finn, J. C. 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀷. Implicaions o he rump adminisraion or Lain American Geography.  Journal of Latin American Geography  󰀱󰀶 (󰀲): 󰀱󰀶󰀳–󰀱󰀶󰀵.Finn, J. C. and A-M. Hanson. 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀷. Criical geographies in Lain America.  Journal of Latin  American Geography  󰀱󰀶 (󰀱): 󰀱–󰀱󰀵. Jonas, S. and N. Rodríguez. 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀴. Guatemala-U.S. migration: transforming regions . Ausin: Universiy o exas Press.Langlois, J. 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀷. An ani-immigraion rally in Brazil urns violen. Los Angeles imes, May 󰀳, 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀷. Available a: htp://laimes.com/world/mexico-americas/la-g-brazil-immigraion-󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀷󰀰󰀵󰀰󰀳-sory.hml.  󰀲󰀵󰀶  󰁊󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁯󰁦 󰁌󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁮 󰁁󰁭󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁣󰁡󰁮 󰁇󰁥󰁯󰁧󰁲󰁡󰁰󰁨󰁹 Massey, D. S., J. Durand, and K. A. Pren. 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀴. Explaining undocumened migraion o he U.S.  International Migration Review  󰀴󰀸 (󰀴): 󰀱󰀰󰀲󰀸–󰀱󰀰󰀶󰀱.Miller, . 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀴. Mexico: Te US Border Parol’s newes hire. AlJazeera America, Ocober 󰀴, 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀴. Available a: hp://america.aljazeera.com/opinions/󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀴/󰀱󰀰/mexico-us- borderparolsecuriyimmigrans.hml.Rasgado, R. 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀷. Cierran albergue de migranes; será reubicado. El Imparcial, Augus 󰀳, 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀷.  Available a: htp://imparcialoaxaca.mx/ismo/󰀳󰀶󰀶󰀱󰀵/cierran-albergue-de-migranes-en-chahuies-sera-reubicado/.Romero, S. and D. Polii. 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀷. Argenina’s rump-like immigraion order ratles Souh America. New York imes, February 󰀴, 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀷. Available a: htps://www.nyimes.com/󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀷/󰀰󰀲/󰀰󰀴/ world/americas/argeninas-rump-like-immigraion-order-ratles-souh-america.hml?_ r=󰀰.ourliere, M. 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀷. Albergue de migranes undado por Solalinde podría cerrar por orden de edil oaxaqueño. Proceso, May 󰀱󰀱, 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀷. Available a: htp://www.proceso.com.mx/󰀴󰀸󰀶󰀱󰀶󰀷/albergue-migranes-undado-solalinde-podria-cerrar-orden-edil-oaxaqueno.
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