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AP Biology Intertidal Zones Mitchell Stooksbury

AP Biology report about intertidal zones. This report was written for a class
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   Stooksbury 1 Mitchell Stooksbury Dr. Peni Hirt AP Biology April 16, 2014 Intertidal Zones Intertidal zones have many different names given by the public, from seashore, to  beachside, to foreshore and more. Intertidal zones are home to many types of algae, mollusks, and other organisms. However, they may be home to many organisms and producers they also cause issues like quicksand and erosion over long periods of time. The majority of activities in this environment are carried out during high tide. Organisms in the intertidal zones that are submerged in water are surrounded by food material such as  plankton's, and detritus (non-living organic material dissolved in water.), dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide and nutrient chemical substances are plentiful and movement and locomotion is much easier and are moved substantially during high tide.   There is a definite relationship between high water periods and vital life activities such as locating and capturing food, and finding a mate for reproduction. The effects of low-tide, during a hot afternoon causes organisms exposed to the air, the sun, and   the wind causing, moisture loss. However, such organisms like the bivalve, have adapted to such challenging conditions.   Stooksbury 2 Water has the ability to store heat very well. Variation of temperature imposed in the intertidal zone creates a tolerance level and among all organisms that live there; as a result, most intertidal life struggles to some degree. By definition, the Intertidal Zone lies at the combination of three environments: air, ocean and land (typically forests or beaches). Some other environmental issues intertidal organisms must deal with are: solar radiation, as opposed to light filtered and refracted by a layer of water, may burn organisms when applied directly. Bombardment by fresh water in the form or rain may pose salinity related problems by agitating soil and water. The harsh effects of wind and snow can destroy tissues and harm smaller organisms. Finally, predation by terrestrial and atmospheric organisms such as birds, raccoons, coyotes, insects, interact with the water at low tide for hydration or bathing. Adaptations that these organisms and plants must face include; free-swimming organisms such as crabs and fish actively seek shelter under rocks or wet tide pools; still, other species build tubes, burrow under rocks, or remain in the damp sand or mud. Guard cells in plants regulate water, excessive temperatures cause the guard cells to close the stomata’s  while light, plentiful water, and favorable temperatures cause them to open their stomata. Some stomata’s  must be open even in unfavorable conditions so that the plant can take in carbon dioxide for photosynthesis. Some organisms reduce heat by locating small pools of water or by  burrowing into mud. Many of the intertidal inhabitants may be confined to a particular intertidal zone by their predators. For example, fast moving predatory species may feed high up in the intertidal and retreat before the tide runs out. Accordingly, the distribution of certain sessile   Stooksbury 3 invertebrates such as barnacles, sponges, and even mussels may be explained more on the basis of predation versus movement, rather than strictly as an adaptation to submergence and emergence. (Enchanted Learning p.26) Organisms who cannot withstand the enviroments Abiotic conditions like: salinity, variant temperatures, and constants movement of water, and winds would burrow deep where salinity is much less, Osmoregulators (which control the movement of water) tightly regulate their body osmolality, which always stays constant. Osmoregulators actively control salt concentrations despite the salt concentrations in the environment, which in this case is primarily water. Whilst there are no specific osmoregulatory organs in plants, the stomata are important in regulating water loss through transpiration and on the cellular level. The vacuole is crucial in regulating the concentration of solutes in the cytoplasm. Strong winds, low humidity and high temperatures all increase transpiration from leaves. In most fish respiration takes place through the gills. Lungfish, however, possess one or two lungs. The labyrinth fish have developed a special organ that allows them to take advantage of the oxygen in the air, but is not a true lung. (Biology Junction) (Enchanted Learning) Overall, intertidal zones are a great example of a diverse and strong collection of organisms and plant life. The Abiotic issues they must deal with on a daily basis keep away other organisms and new cultures from taking over their habitat. The rhythmic motion of this environment is amazing and a true work of God as seen in Genisis 1: 9-10 And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and   Stooksbury 4 it was so. 10 And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and God saw that it was good. Therefore the intertidal zones were created and we get to experience the beauty and true complexity of God’s work. (Bible Gateway)  

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Jul 23, 2017
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