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Auckland. Globalization and the Transformation of National Sovereign

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Leonid E. Grinin Volgograd Center for Social Research Globalization and the Transformation of National Sovereignty Abstract The process of globalization undoubtedly contributes to the changes and reduction of nomenclature and scope of state sovereign powers. At the same time this is a bilateral process: On the one side, the factors are strengthening that fairly undermine the countries` sovereignty, on the other – most states voluntarily limit the scope of their sovereignty including the right t
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   Leonid E. GrininVolgograd Center for Social ResearchGlobalization and the Transformation of National Sovereignty Abstract The process of globalization undoubtedly contributes to the changes and reductionof nomenclature and scope of state sovereign powers. At the same time this is a bilateral process: On the one side, the factors are strengthening that fairly underminethe countries` sovereignty, on the other – most states voluntarily limit the scope of their sovereignty including the right to use the capital punishment, nomenclature andsize of taxation, the size of emission and borrowings etc. We believe that among therange of factors influencing the process of change of national sovereignty (includingthe technological and economical changes and the necessity to solve jointly a greatnumber of issues), the factor of voluntary reducing of scope of sovereign powers toobtain an additional prestige and benefit appears to be of the utmost importance. Atthe same time the limiting of sovereignty inevitably leads to great changes in the policy patterns of states as well as of common people masses. So the problems of changes of functions and role of the modern state, in our view, must be among thoseof currant importance.Can the started 21 st century be already called the age of globalization? Will it be of the kind? It is quite probable. But what will happen in the future with national states`sovereign rights? And whether these latter remain as before the leading players at the political scene or they will give this place to some new formations?At the end of the 20 th –beginning of the 21 st century in the political scienceespecially in connection with the problems of globalization and new world order there started to be raised also the issue of national sovereignty change, “diffusion”,“disappearing” etc. (see e.g. Giddens, 1990; Held, et al  . 1999, Russian translation – 2004; Gilpin, 2001; Held, and McGrew, 2003b, Ilyin, 1993b; Ilyin, Inozemtsev, 201,  Tsimbursky, 1993 etc.). Nevertheless, in comparison with an avalanche of works onglobalization the publications dedicated to the transformation of sovereignty inmodern world unfortunately are scarce, and above all, the problem itself is notstudied thoroughly and profoundly enough as one would like it to be. Meanwhile inour view, the processes of change of sovereignty appear to be among the mostimportant for the present.In the present paper we tried to prove that on the whole globalization contributesto the change and reduction of nomenclature and scope of state sovereign powers and besides it is a bilateral process: on the one hand, the factors are strengthening thatfairly undermine the countries` sovereignty, on the other – most states voluntarilylimit the scope of their sovereignty. And since the tendency to change and reduce thesovereign prerogatives (with some fluctuations) most likely will strengthen, and itwill inevitably and fundamentally influence all spheres of life including the change of ideology and public psychology. However, the last point is evidently underestimated by analytics. We think that to give an appropriate estimation of these changes oneneeds some new approaches to the problems of national sovereignty and the role of national states in the process of globalization. In the present paper we suggest and partially develop some of such approaches.In political science sovereignty is usually defined as the most essential attribute of a state in the form of its complete self-sufficiency, i.e. its supremacy in the domestic policy and independence in the foreign one (see e.g  . Jerry and Jerry 1999: 311;Averyanov 1993: 367; Held 2003: 162-163). This notion became widespread in the19 th century. But already at the beginning of the New Age it got quite a definiteinterpretation on the works by N. Machiavelli, J, Bodin, T, Hobbes and others (see e.g. Held, 2003: 162–163). In the system of international affairs which appeared after Peace Treaties of Westphalia of 1648 after the Thirty Years` War the principles of state sovereignty gradually obtained the all-European appreciation (see on these principle Held et al., 1999: 37–38). However, it is important to note that this“normative trajectory” of international law was fully described only by the end of 18 th  – early 19 th century (ibid.: 37). At present in the UNO Charter and in some other   international agreements there are regulations on sovereign equality of states andnations` right to self-determination which together with the increasing degree of external security of most countries, in our view has sufficiently contributed to theconsolidation of the idea of national sovereignty in international affairs in the secondhalf of the 20 th century. Indeed as we will see further the tendency of recognizing thesovereign rights combined with the tendency of their voluntarily constraint by thesovereigns themselves. However the notion of sovereignty is one of the most difficultand ambiguous (see e.g. Stankiewicz, 1969: 291) and its content has constantlychanged and continues to change in connection with changes of international affairsand characteristics of the states themselves (see e.g. Grinin, 2006a, 2007a; Grinin,Korotayev, 2006) and also depending on who was the supreme sovereign: a feudalmonarch having right to “grant or split states when sharing the inheritance”; anenlightened absolute monarch who already acted on behalf of people or a nation itself (see e.g  . Yan, 1996). Besides, absolute in theory sovereignty of states as well of nations is always strongly and even fatally limited by different factors. Sovereigntycan be regarded in different aspects ( e.g. as a positive and a negative one) andvariants. In other words the notion of sovereignty is not univocal and indisputable but provokes numerous debates and thus demands a considerable elaboration.Globalization is an exceptionally many-sided process. Practically all spheres of life experience its impact (see e.g. the analysis of its different aspects or “dimensions” [Giddens, 1990]). It is the result of a very difficult allegation of  political, social, economic, civilizational and many other processes in modern world.But among these numerous factors one should especially mark out the huge changesin modern productive forces, media, world trade and specialization. Technology andtrade entangle the world with new network connections and make national boundariestransparent. Together with other factors this harshly complicates the conditionsexternal for a society. As a result globalization strongly reduces and changes thescope of national sovereignty, undermines the position of a state as of a major subjectof international affairs (see Grinin, 1999; 2005; 2007). Thus the changes in   production forces in this or that way lead to the changes of all other spheres of lifeincluding the political one.Any progress always means that a certain part of changes makes the situationworse in comparison with what there has been before. Respectively, globalizationdoes not always give a positive effect and this is constantly emphasized by its critics.In particular they point to the disparity in benefiting from globalization and theincreasing gap in life rate of different countries. Indeed this is quite an ambiguousconclusion. That is why it is rather natural that reducing of national sovereignty hasnot only positive side. Like any other radical turn this one also brings many negativeconsequences, e.g. weakening of such features as patriotism. And also the opennessof boundaries is good in some way and wrong in another, e.g. in the field of terrorismand drugs spreading.In political science sovereignty is usually defined as the most essential attribute of a state in the form of its complete self-sufficiency, i.e. its supremacy in the domestic policy and independence in the foreign one (see e.g. Jerry and Jerry 1999: 311;Averyanov 1993: 367; Held 2003: 162-163). This notion became widespread in the19 th century. But already at the beginning of the New Age it got quite a definiteinterpretation on the works by N. Machiavelli, J, Bodin, T, Hobbes and others. At present in the UNO Charter and in some other international agreements there areregulations on sovereign equality of states and nations` right to self-determination.Undoubtedly, in reality the state sovereignty has always been limited by differentfactors. But it is important to mention that today the idea of states' complete freedomof action even in mere theory looks false. The matter is that the scope of internalsovereignty has greatly narrowed de jure due to the international agreementsincluding the issues of human rights (see Averyanov, 1993: 368) and actually to agreater degree – in connection with already prevalent traditions.As it has been already said there are quite few works dedicated to thetransformation of the position and role of a state in modern world. At that in mostcases, as Michael Many correctly observes, there is going on a one-sided debate onthe issue whether the state system becomes stronger or weaker, meanwhile the

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Oct 30, 2017
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