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B asic anatomy SEMESTER 2 kd 2 anatomy

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1. BASIC ANATOMY 2. The first day that you look at or place your hand on your patient, you require a basic knowledge to interpret your observation. Your knowledge of…
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  • 1. BASIC ANATOMY
  • 2. The first day that you look at or place your hand on your patient, you require a basic knowledge to interpret your observation. Your knowledge of their anatomy may save their life. It is in the Anatomy Department that you learn the basic medical vocabulary that you will carry with you throughout your professional career and that will enable you to converse with your colleagues
  • 3. Axial skeleton : Skull 22 Auditory ossicles 6 Hyoid bone 1 Vertebral column 26 Ribs and sternum 25 ---- 80 Appendicular skeleton : Upper extremity 64 Lower extremity 62 ---- 126 ----- Total 206
  • 4. FUNCTION PROTECTIVE LEVER – MUSCLE ATTACHMENT - MOVEMENT STORAGE HEMATOPOESIS
  • 5. BONE COMPOSITION Water 50% Solid substance 50% – Organic substance 31% Ossein – Inorganic substance 69% : Calcium Phosphate 80%
  • 6. BONE STRUCTURE Pars/substantia compacta Pars/substantis spongiosa Epiphysis Epiphyseal disc Metaphysis Diaphysis (shaft) Cavum medullare
  • 7. Types of Bone Long bones Short bones Flat bones Irregular bones Sesamoid bones
  • 8. Long bones Its length is greater than its width Diaphysis – 2 Epiphyseal ends Act as a lever movement For examples : – Os femur, os fibula, os tibia, os metatarsalia, ossa phalanges pedis etc – Os humerus, os radius, os ulna, os metacarpalia, ossa phalanges manus etc
  • 9. Short Bones Approximately equal in all 3 dimentions Composed of cancellous bone surrounded by thin layer of compact bone Almost completely cover with articular surface Only in wrist (ossa carpalia) and ankle (ossa tarsalia) where only limited movement is required
  • 10. Flat Bones Formed by 2 thin inner and outer plate of compact bone separated by minimal layer of trabecular/cancellous bone between them Form a protective enclosure (brain, heart, lung), examples : – Os scapula – Ossa costae – Os sternum – Calvaria
  • 11. Irregular Bones Have a complicated configuration and numerous processes. For examples : – Os vertebra – Os sphenoideus – Os ethmoideus
  • 12. Sesamoid Bones Small bones embedded within certain tendons. Largest : os patella The most constant : – Tendo m. flexor pollicis brevis Articulatio metacarpophalangeal I – Tendo m flexor hallucis brevis Articulatio metatarsophalangeal I
  • 13. OSTEOGENESIS Bones can develop in two ways : Osteogenesis intramembranacea Osteogenesis endochondralis
  • 14. Osteogenesis intramembranacea Bone tissue develops directly from mesenchymal tissue Only 1 type ossification center Occurs in the flat bone of the skull
  • 15. Osteogenesis endochondralis Bone tissue develop by replacing hyaline cartilagenous model Occurs in the long bones (of limbs) Diaphyse Primary center of ossification Epiphyse Secondary center of ossification
  • 16. TERMINOLOGY Plane – Median/midsagittal – Sagittal – Coronal – Frontal – Transversal/horizontal Direction/Position – Anterior-Posterior – Ventral-dorsal – Superior-Inferior – Cranial-Caudal – Lateral-Medial – Proximal-Distal – Superficial-Profundus – Interna-Externa
  • 17. GenuGenuGenu Extremitas inferior Cruris Pedis Manus Antebrachii Brachii Extremitas superior Truncus
  • 18. Architecture of muscle Strap Fusiform Pennate : – Unipennate – Bipennate – Multipennate Circular
  • 19. STRAP : Muscle fascicles are paralel to one another and to the long axis of the muscle and may extend for the entire length of the muscle Ex : m. sartorius m. sternocleidomastoideus
  • 20. RHOMBOID m. rhomboides QUADRILATERAL m. pronator quadratus
  • 21. FUSIFORM Ex : M. biceps brachii TRIANGULAR Ex : m. pectoralis major
  • 22. UNIPENNATE m. extensor digitorum longus BIPENNATE m. rectus femoris
  • 23. MULTIPENNATE Pars acromialis m. deltoideus CIRCULAR M. orbicularis oculi m. orbicularis oris Sphincter
  • 24. UNIVENTER – Most of muscles BIVENTER (TWO-BELLIED) – M. digastricus – M. omohyoideus MULTIVENTER (INTERSECTED) – M. rectus abdominalis
  • 25. TYPES of MOVEMENTS
  • 26. TYPES of MOVEMENT
  • 27. TYPES of MOVEMENT
  • 28. TYPES of MOVEMENT
  • 29. How muscles are named. Tells something about : Shape Size Location Number of heads of origin Function Direction of their fibers
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