Bba L09 Dt Social Change

1. Welcome Class BBA-L09- / /08 Social Change 2. Today’s Objectives <ul><li>To clarify the concept of Social Change along with its meanings definition and…
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  • 1. Welcome Class BBA-L09- / /08 Social Change
  • 2. Today’s Objectives <ul><li>To clarify the concept of Social Change along with its meanings definition and theories. </li></ul><ul><li>To discuss the factors triggering social change as well as the factors creating obstacle in the social change. </li></ul>
  • 3. Definitions of Social Changes <ul><li>What is Social Change? </li></ul><ul><li>“ Social change means that large number of persons are engaging in activities that differ from those in which they or their parents were engaged some times before.” ( F.E.Merril ) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Thus social change is a term used to describe variations or modifications of any aspect of a social processes, social pattern, social interaction, or social organization.” ( Jones ) </li></ul><ul><li>“ By social change is meant only such as secure in social organization that is, the structure an functions of society,” ( Davis.K ). </li></ul>
  • 4. Conclusion <ul><li>Social change is the change in society. Society is a web of social relationships. Hence social change is a change in social relationships. It is the change in these which alone we shall regard as social change, human society is constituted of human beings. Thus whatever apparent alteration in the mutual behavior between individuals takes place is a sign of social change. This fact of social change can be verified by glancing at the history of an society. Man is a dynamic being. Hence society can never remain static. It undergoes constant variation. </li></ul>
  • 5. Factors of Social Change <ul><li>Cultural Factors-: The main cause of Social Change is the cultural factor. Change in the culture are accompanied by social changes. Actually, no one can deny that changes and variations in culture inevitably influence social relationships. Culture gives speed and direction to social change and determines the limits beyond which social changes can not occur. This however, does not warrant the conclusion that there is no distinction between social and cultural change. Actually, the field of social change is limited in comparison with the field of cultural change. </li></ul>
  • 6. ( Continue ) Factors of Social Change <ul><li>Technological Factors-: “ Technology changes society by changing our environments to which we, in turn adapt. This change is usually in the material environment and the adjustment we make to the changes often modifies customs and social institutions.” in this way incessant increase in new machines and methods due to new discoveries had a very great influence upon social relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>Biological Factors-: Biological factors too have some indirect influence upon social change the biological factor is the qualitative aspect of the population related to heredity. The qualitative aspect is based upon powerful and great men and their birth is dependent to a large extent upon heredity and mutation. Hence, biological factors play a part in social change to that extent in edition to this, biological process of natural selection and struggle for survival are constantly producing alterations in society. </li></ul>
  • 7. ( Continue ) Factors of Social Change <ul><li>Population Factors-: Even change in the quality and size of the population have an effect upon the social organization as well accustoms and traditions, institutions, associations, etc. increase and decrease of population, a change in ratio of men and women, young and old, have an effect upon this social relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Factors-: The geographists have emphasized the impact of geographical environment upon human society. Huntington has gone so far as to assert that an alteration in the climate is the sole cause o the evolution and devolution of civilization and cultures. Even if these claims of the geographists are to be discarded, it cannot be denied that floods, earthquake, excessive rain, draught, change of season, etc., have significant effect upon social relationships and these are modified by such natural occurrences. </li></ul>
  • 8. ( Continue ) Factors of Social Change <ul><li>Psychological Factors-: Most sociologists regard psychological factors as important elements in social change. The cause of social changes is the psychology of man himself. Man is, by nature, a lover of change. He Is always trying to discover new things in every sphere of his life and is always anxious for novel experience. As a result of this tendency, the mores, traditions, customs, etc., of every human society are perpetually undergoing change. </li></ul><ul><li>other Factors-: </li></ul><ul><li>Appearance of new opinion and thoughts e.g. changes in the attitude towards dowry caste system, and Female education etc. </li></ul><ul><li>War is also a cause social change because it influences the population the economic situation and ratio of Male or Female etc. </li></ul>
  • 9. Obstacle In the way of Social Change <ul><li>Conservative Society- : As the society is conservative as the pace of social change is slow. In conservative societies material and non material changes are not accepted easily e.g. we can find around us several conservative tribes which have not accepted new norms prevalent in non conservative societies. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Education- : illiteracy and ignorance are among the main obstacle in the way of social change. Illiterate people do not accept even positive elements of other cultures. It is because they are very rigid about their culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of means of communication- : Due to limited means of communication the social mobility and social interaction can not take place as a result new ideas and new invention remain far from the people and they remain unaware of the new world. e.g. today in Africa there are so many tribes whose living standard is very different than us. Because no one has access to that particular areas due to lack of means of communication. </li></ul>
  • 10. ( Continue ) Obstacle In the way of Social Change <ul><li>Economic Reasons- : Economic reasons are also main hinder in the social change. First of all the poor people can not afford new inventions and discoveries. On the other hand economic disparity leads to ignores and illiteracy which do not allow the people to accept new ideas immediately. </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Interest- : Some time the people oppose the new social change because their personal benefits and interest. e.g. for tribal chives in the tribal areas oppose the female education and their participation in politics because it may reduce their influence incase of women emancipation and empowerment. </li></ul>
  • 11. ( Continue ) Obstacle In the way of Social Change <ul><li>Cohesion with Past- : The people feel emotional attachment with on going social norms and patterns. Due to great attachment with past the people don’t accept the changes easily. e.g. although our customs of marriage from Hindu Cultural background, it is only cohesion of the people with them that they are still being practiced having a degree of dislike ness. </li></ul><ul><li>Problem in adapting New Inventions- : Some time the people do not adapt the new inventions because of the cultural and religious factors. e.g. the invention of the test tube baby has not been able to get acceptability in the world. </li></ul>
  • 12. Theories of Social Change <ul><li>Ibn-e-Khaldun -: He says that every society under goes the process of social change. According to him the social change occur inform of circle which is consist of 120 years. This circle of 120 years is divided into 3 stages and each stage has 40 years. In first 40 years the society develops in evolutionary sense. The 2 nd phase is the developmental phase in which society develops in all walks of life. In the last stage the society declines. In this way the process of social change continues. The process of social change deeps on in every society. </li></ul>
  • 13. ( Continue ) Theories of Social Change <ul><li>William F. Ogburn- : Ogburn says that normally the changes in the non-material culture of the society are rapid than material aspect. It means that the people bring change quickly in the material aspect of their life but they find it hard to change their thinking and ideas. If the pace of change is different in both material and nonmaterial aspect it creates the situation of cultural lack. </li></ul>
  • 14. ( Continue ) Theories of Social Change <ul><li>Karl Marx- : He asserts the social change is the surety of social development. Due to industrial revolution the society is dived into three strats’s, Lower, Middle and Upper class. The conflict becomes higher among these three classes. Because every class wishes to develop as a strata neglecting others Every class bring rapid changes in its structure and ideologies and consequently, the social changes occur in the society very rapidly. </li></ul><ul><li>Herbert Spencer- : He says that the social change is inevitable so they shouldn’t be hindered. The unnecessary obstacle in the way of social change may be the cause of social disorganization. Social change is necessary for social evolution which is in volunteer and continues process. </li></ul>
  • 15. ( Continue ) Theories of Social Change <ul><li>Evolutionary Theory- : All evolutionary theories assume that there is a consistent direction of social change carrying all societies through a similar sequence of stages from the original to the final stage of development. Also, evolutionary theories imply that when the final stage is reached, evolutionary change will end. Herbet Spencer saw societies passing through three stages of growth: (1) The Theological stage, guided by supernatural wisdom; (2) the metaphysical stage, a transitional stage in which supernatural beliefs are replaced by abstract principles as cultural guidelines, and (3) the positive, or Scientific, stage in which society is guided by evidence-based scientific laws. </li></ul>
  • 16. ( Continue ) Theories of Social Change <ul><li>Religious Theory- : many religion has narrated the causes of social change based on the religious ideology the common understanding of almost of every religion is that, the every change comes by the will of God. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Effects </li></ul><ul><li>Social change bring about the cause of social development and satisfaction among the people. </li></ul><ul><li>Social change replaces the absolute customs, traditions, and norms. </li></ul><ul><li>Since social change is a natural process, its occurrence is natural. The social change brings economic prosperity. </li></ul>
  • 17. ( Continue ) Theories of Social Change <ul><li>Negative Effects-: Social change brings changes in the material culture of the society where as the pace of change is not the same in nonmaterial aspect of the culture. This creates cultural lack which is the reason of social disorganization and discontentment among the peoples. e.g. in our society we have adopted more or less western way of living but our marriage system is still keeping pace with old customs. It creates discontentment’s among the young members of the Society. </li></ul><ul><li>The rapid Social change is the reason of generation gape. </li></ul><ul><li>Social changes are not always positive some times, such changes happens in society which are opposite to the religion and culture. It creates chaos in society. e.g. the use of Drugs have bought negative implications on our family and social system. </li></ul>
  • 18. <ul><li>Thank you and Goodbye, </li></ul><ul><li>Till Next Class </li></ul>
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