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  Role of Society in combating the menace of begging   Muhammad MuazzamI shaque and Dr. Mahboob ur Rehman Qureshi Department of Islamic Studies, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Islamabad  Abstract   - Begging has become an evil of the society. Professional beggars have made it a difficult choice for people who wish to help the needy. If you help one beggar, the other beggars around you, will rush towards you and you will pester with their questions and demands. Such situations make one annoyed and hence results into yelling situations. Much has been researched out for policy makers and governments to take steps to eradicate or reduce the begging problem but the problem is keep on increasing rather decreasing 1 . This articles tries to find a solution to overwhelming begging problem from a sociological point of view and will try to establish a link of social response to reduce begging in society and will also try to raise some questions for future research towards the same to help reduce the begging  problem. Introduction Streets of underdeveloped countries are overwhelmed with beggars and no street, chowk, traffic signal, market, road and garden is free of beggars. They reach you at your home, follow you to your office and question you at bus stop. Beggars determine your position by your getup and customize their request for you as per your look. People wishes to help them as to please GOD but growing numbers of beggars have puzzled them to help or not to help.Lack of education becomes the main cause for the people to come on roads for begging 2  and hence replying them on their demands or questions requires proper methodology. Islam as a perfect religion encourages giving alms to the needy but on the same token does not frown begging if need arises 3 . It is clearly not liked to beg from other creatures 4  (Sunan An- Nasa’i 2586) . It is also pertinent from the Islamic perspective that the upper hand is better than the lower hand 5 . So the situation requires more exploration and research to understand the perspective of dealing with the situations when it comes to begging as at one end religion promotes charity and giving alms and on the other hand if someone is not been able to fulfil his/her needs and asks for it, it is not liked. 1 O. A. Fawole, D. V. Ogunkan, and A. Omoruan, “The Menace of Begging in Nigerian Cities: A Sociological Analysis,” January 1, 2011, https://www.scienceopen.com/document?vid=c87c4ae6-55a9-4ad4-ae91-327824c4c0e2. 2 David V. Ogunkan and Olufemi A. Fawole, “Incidence and Socio -Economic Dimensions of Begging in Nigerian Cities: The Case of Og bomoso,” International NGO Journal   4, no. 12 (December 30, 2009): 498  – 503. 3 Rtp M. O. Mnitp, “Street - Begging in Cities: Cultural, Political and Socio-Economic Quest ions,” Global Journal of Human-Social Science Research  13, no. 5 (September 25, 2013), http://www.socialscienceresearch.org/index.php/GJHSS/article/view/785. 4 “Hadith on Begging: If You Knew How Bad It Was to Beg, Then No One Would Ever Beg from People,” Daily Hadith Online , September 3, 2012, http://dailyhadith.abuaminaelias.com/2012/09/02/hadith-on-begging-if-you-knew-how-bad-it-was-to-beg-then-no-one-would-ever-beg-from-people/. 5 “DISAPPROVAL OF BEGGING FROM PEOPLE - Sahih Muslim, Volume 5 - Hadith,” accessed December 20, 2016, http://www.theonlyquran.com/hadith/Sahih-Muslim/?volume=5&chapter=33.  This paper looks at the begging problem from a different perspective of attitudeof society towards beggars, its effects on reducing the problem and from the subjects to suggest most appropriate response to someone who beg for help or favor.This paper actually prepares the ground as well as gives directions for empirical studies, which may emanate from such studythat attempts to explain, confirm, validate, constructsand hypotheses that are products of this piece. A perfect response to the one who beg to you for his/her need of the problem has been researched out from various sources. There has a lot been researched on the issues that focuses the problem of begging from religious, social, socio-economic, cultural, political and associated impacts perspective but from the perspective of dealing the beggars the researchers yet not take much step forward. Begging when looked from the social perspective its looks as a social problem and hence requires the empathetic, clarification, and forecast require a systematic knowledge of the social forces that promote it 6 . It has also been discussed that begging is a cause of rapid urbanization where some people with low capabilities or willingness have been forced to depend on marginal subsistence activities like begging for alms 7 . Researchers have worked to categorize the beggars as beggars of the street families, beggars in the street, beggars on the streets and beggars of the street who adopted beggary as an outcome of poverty, unemployment, family disintegration or physical challenges 8 .Begging has been hypothesized as product of poverty whereas chronic beggary or begging habit has been thought as a product of beggary 9 . Different interventions has also been recommended to address the issue of beggary that relates to prevention, perception and responsiveness of policy makers and local governments for the devising of appropriate strategies to resolve the growing phenomenon of beggary. Some researchers has also focused on the reactions of passerby’s on the alms requests made by beggars as harsh sometimes or generous to most of the times for elderly or physically disabled peoples 10 .Begging has also been responded within a Human Rights Framework to reiterate the provision of basic facilities of life to all human in a geographical location as lack of any/all causes the birth of begging 11 . So it is obvious from the review of the literature that enough has been written on the causes, categorization and solution to the begging problem in different areas of the world from sociological, economical and cultural perspectives. The researchers have not yet much research towards the area of dealing with the beggars as the problem is keep on increasing rather decreasing, so it is deemed necessary to put some research on the issue of dealing with the beggars in day to day life. 6 Fawole, Ogunkan, and Omoruan, “The Menace of Begging in Nigerian Cities.”   7 “Begging in Dublin: ‘The Strategies of a Marginal Urban Occupation’ - ProQuest,” accessed December 26, 2016, http://search.proquest.com/openview/88b766199f6d025d52030628c6e7c667/1?pq-srcsite=gscholar&cbl=1821467. 8 Baltazar M. L. Namwata, Maseke R. Mgabo, and Provident Dimoso, “CATEGORIES OF STREET BEGGARS AND FACTORS INFLUENCING STREET BEGGING IN CENTRAL TANZANIA,” June 2012, doi:10.14989/158998.   9 M. O. Mnitp, “Street - Begging in Cities.”   10 Namwata, Mgabo, and Dimoso, “CATEGORIES OF STREET BEGGARS AND  FACTORS INFLUENCING STREET BEGGING IN CENTRAL TANZANIA.”   11 “Lynch, Philip --- ‘Understanding and Responding to Begging’ [2005] MelbULawRw 16; (2005) 29(2) Melbourne University Law Review 518,” accessed December 27, 2016, http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/MelbULawRw/2005/16.html.  Method The research adopts qualitative analysis technique to gain an understanding of underlying reasons, opinions, and motivations related to helping the needy or who beg for help. The method used to conduct this research is a review and analysis of the existing literature. It provides insights into the questions raised in the problem statementto help the people who wishes to help the needy. The research methodology is also used to uncover the trends in thought and opinions, to dig deeper into the problem faced by common people because of the overwhelming begging situations. It uses unstructured interviews based on grounded theory 12  with ethnography methodology 13 .Structured questionnaires were designed and administered to 65 street beggars. The selection of beggars was based upon a convenience sampling techniquefrom various public spaces. Primary data was also collected through focus-group discussions, key-informant interviews, and observations. Out of 65 beggars only 35 beggars shows their willingness to answer the survey questions. 21 women and 9 men denied to respond to answer any question. 16 beggars only answer few questions and left the survey. 19 beggars responded to the full survey. Sampling size technique: Sampling size is based on theoretical saturation 14  and theoretical sampling methodology as described in the grounded theory methodology. The sampling technique used is random sampling in combination of snowball sampling for data collection. Results and Discussion Results of the study can be better explained by first analyzing the categories of beggars as the response to a beggar is strictly modified by the passerby depending on the category of beggar. After defining the categories, we will discuss the responses of passerby as a response to our questionnaire asked from beggars and try to categorize the responses into definable categories. On the basis of the data analysis the research will tryconclude the perfect response and will raise some more questions for the future research in the same topic. Categories of Beggars Begging has multi-facet associations with insufficient housing, mental illness, drug dependency,homelessness, poverty, low income support and fewer health care services 15 . Beggars are classified into different categories with respect to shelter 16  or with respect to the cause that leads an individual to beg 17 . In western world the classification of the beggars are based upon type of non-worker 12 “Grounded Theory,” Wikipedia , December 5, 2016, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Grounded_theory&oldid=753134437. 13 John H. Goldthorpe, “Causation, Statistics, and Sociology,” European Sociological Review   17, no. 1 (March 1, 2001): 1  – 20, doi:10.1093/esr/17.1.1. 14 Michael Bloor and Fiona Wood, Theoretical Saturation: Qualitative Methods   (1 Oliver’s Yard,  55 City Road, London England EC1Y 1SP United Kingdom: SAGE Publications Ltd, 2006), http://methods.sagepub.com/book/keywords-in-qualitative-methods. 15 “Lynch, Philip --- ‘Understanding and Responding to Begging’ [2005] MelbULawRw 16; (2005) 29(2) Melbourne University Law Review 518.”   16 Namwata, Mgabo, and Dimoso, “CATEG ORIES OF STREET BEGGARS AND FACTORS INFLUENCING STREET BEGGING IN CENTRAL TANZANIA.”   17 M. O. Mnitp, “Street - Begging in Cities.”    and hence declared beggar as someone who is non-worker whether migrant, non-migrant or static 18 . Medical conditions are also plays very important role in begging to create sympathy for the beggar or to attract the passer by to listen to the problem of the beggar to give alms 19 , 20 . Shelter Non-worker Cause Medical On the street Hoboes Poverty Mental illness In the street Tramps Habit Physical disability Of the street Bums Drug abuse Of the street family It is obvious that beggar’s objective is to draw attention from the passerby to get some alms out of his/her pocket. To achieve their goal beggars uses whatever techniques or gestures it may take and hence categorized on the basis of the choice of begging strategy. In the developing countries,begging is one of the age-long activities in urban areas and has become occupations of the poverty ridden individuals of the society. Begging is not specific to developing countries as it has now become a universal phenomenonand a global urban problem 21 . So in developing countries people face beggars all around them and hence categorize them on two broader categories: 1.   People in need 2.   People in habit Passerby’s usually think of beggars more eligible for alms who belong to following categories:  1.   Medical illness 2.   Old age 3.   Women with newly born children 4.   Small children with less clothing in cold weather Rest all other categories of the beggar’s appearance or gestures are treated as people in habit of begging. This typical behavior of the passerby’s is developed because of the day to day interaction with  overwhelming number of beggars and situation or response may be different in an area where concentration of beggars is low as comparison to the developing countries. The gender- wise response from passersby’s is reflected in [Graph 1].   18 KATAYUN H. CAMA, M.A. (Bom,), M.SC., ph,D., “Our Beggar Problem,” accessed December 27, 2016, https://archive.org/stream/ourbeggarproblem029789mbp/ourbeggarproblem029789mbp_djvu.txt. 19 Kabiru K. Salami and Aishat O. Olugbayo, “Health -Seeking Behavior of Migrant Beggars in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria,” Health  5, no. 4 (April 11, 2013): 792, doi:10.4236/health.2013.54105. 20 Joseph Westermeyer and John Nei der, “Mentally Ill Foragers and Beggars in a Peasant Society: Their Social Networks and Psychopathology,” International Journal of Family Therapy   3, no. 4 (December 1, 1981): 295  – 309, doi:10.1007/BF00924357. 21 D. V. Ogunkan* and M. O. Jelili, “The Influence of Land Use on the Spatial Variation of Begging in Ogbomoso, Nigeria - ProQuest,”  Journal of Geography and Regional Planning Vol. 3(4), Pp. 73-83, April 2010 , accessed December 27, 2016, http://search.proquest.com/openview/c37e2519021a8673973392c79b42a282/1?pq-srcsite=gscholar.
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