Biology Benchmark Review

SC BIO I UP02: Ecology 1. What is symbiosis? 2. Describe and give examples of these symbiotic relationships: a- mutualism b- commensalisms c- parasitism d- predator/prey 3. What are techniques practiced by field ecologists? 4. What types of data do they collect? a- with sampling b- using quadrats c- to determine species diversity d- to determine changes over time 5. What is the difference between biotic and abiotic factors? How important are they in ecosystems? 6. How do limiting factors influ
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  SC BIO I UP02: Ecology 1.What is symbiosis?2.Describe and give examples of these symbiotic relationships: a- mutualism b- commensalisms c- parasitism d- predator/prey3.What are techniques practiced by field ecologists? 4.What types of data do they collect? a- with sampling b- using quadratsc- to determine species diversity d- to determine changes over time5.What is the difference between biotic and abiotic factors? How important are they in ecosystems?6.How do limiting factors influence carrying capacity? (as food availability, shelter, predators, temperature)7.Describe the population growth curves (J and S). What influences those growth curves?8.What are the interrelationships among organisms, populations, communities, ecosystems, and biomes?9.How does the carbon cycle relate to photosynthesis and respiration?10.Describe the different trophic levels and energy transfer between the levels(focus on direction andefficiency).11.What factors influence changes in populations? (birth / death rates)12.What are the effects of population size, density, global warming, pesticide use and uses of other resourceson the ecosystem?13.How do changes in a population affect other organisms?14.What are factors that influence climate change? a- global warming (ozone layer) b- acid rain c- habitat destruction d- natural environmental processes15.What is the direct and indirect impact of humans on natural resources?a- deforestation (direct) b- pesticide use (indirect) c- bioaccumulation (indirect)16.What are examples of sustainable use and stewardship? SC BIO I UP03: Chemistry of Life 1.What are the characteristics of living organisms?2.What role does each of the four major organic compounds play in living organisms?3.In what ways are enzymes important in biological systems? SC BIO I UP04: Cellular Structure and Function 1.How would you describe the structure and function of cell organelles?2.How would you compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?3.In what way is water important to cells? a- solutions b- concentrations c- active transport d-passivetransport4.What cell processes are necessary to maintain life?5.What is the process for cell division while maintaining chromosome number? (know phases) SC BIO I UP05: Cellular Energetics 1.What is the function of ATP?2.How would you design an experiment that focuses on the following—include the organic molecules thatare needed:a. aerobic respiration b. anaerobic respirationc. photosynthesisd. chemosynthesis SC BIO I UP06: Molecular Genetics and Biotechnology 1.What is the structure and function of DNA?2.Who are Watson and Crick?3.How does DNA technology contribute to society’s needs?4.What is the structure and function of RNA?  5.How can you distinguish between the three types of RNA? (their names and function)6.How can you differentiate between the following processes: a- DNA Replication b- Transcription c- Translation7. How are genes expressed?8.How do mutations affect the genetic code? a- What are the different kinds of mutations? b. What role do mutations play in “evolution” of organisms?9.What was the goal of the Human Genome Project?10.What ethical issues surround genomics and biotechnology?11.How is gene therapy enhanced by the findings of the Human Genome Project?12.Explain the process of gel electrophoresis.13.How are transgenic organisms useful in agriculture and industry?14.How is the insulin produced by pharmaceutical companies made? SC BIO I UP07: Meiosis and Heredity 1.Describe the cell division process that reduces chromosome number in half (meiosis).2.What causes genetic variation?3.How are phenotypes and genotypes determined? (Mendel's experiments and laws)4.How do you interpret a karyotype?5.How are recessive trait displayed?6.How is incomplete dominance an intermediate? 7.How are both traits displayed in codominance?8.What are the inheritance patterns of Sickle cell, Huntington's disease, cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs?9.What distinguishes the different blood types: A, B, AB, O?10.What traits are controlled by the expression of more than one gene? (skin, hair, height)11.How is sex determined?12.Why are males more likely to express a sex-linked trait? (color blindness, hemophilia)13.What is the importance of genes being on separate chromosomes as it relates to meiosis?14.How does this lead to greater genetic variability?15.How can you determine an organism's genotype by looking at it's phenotype?16.How can pedigrees be used to determine genotypes?17.How are Punnett squares useful in determining genotypes and ratios of offspring?

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Aug 25, 2017


Aug 25, 2017
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