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  Updated 10/13/2019 2:15 PM LIBERTY UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF DIVINITY A Sample Paper for the Purpose of Correct Formatting Submitted to Dr.Smith, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the completion of GLST 650-001 Intercultural Communication  by Christine Young October 6, 2019  ii Contents Overview  .........................................................................................................................................1 Paralanguage ………………………………..…………………………………………………… 1 Definition………………………………………………………………………………… 1 Application………………………………………………………………………………...2   Facial Expressions  ..........................................................................................................................2 Definition .............................................................................................................................2 Application ...........................................................................................................................3 Gestures  ..........................................................................................................................................3 Definition .............................................................................................................................3 Application ...........................................................................................................................3 Boundary Regulations  ...................................................................................................................4 Definition…………………………………………………………………………………. 4 Application………………………………….…………………………………………….. 4 Regulating Time ………………..………………………………………………………………... 4 Definition…………………………………………………………………………………. 4 Application……………………………………………………………………………….. 5 Conclusion  .....................................................................................................................................5 Bibliography  ...................................................................................................................................6   1 Overview Chapter seven of Ting and Toomey’s book is titled, “Different Ways to Communicate  Non- Verbally” and explains how much non- verbal communication affects the way one’s wo rds are perceived. Without a good understanding of the differences than can arise in non-verbal communication, cross-cultural workers will not be as capable of being understood and understanding others from different cultures. Because non-verbal communication is visual, it has a large effect on how one is initially perceived. Ting and Toomey describe nonverbal communication as a “relationship code” because these cues are a primary way of signaling a relationship with others, being more secretive than many verbal messages and unintentional in comparison to intentional verbal messages. 1  The chapter highlights paralanguage, facial expressions, gestures, boundary regulations, and regulating time as different forms of non-communication, all of which will be discussed and analyzed in this paper in relation to cross-cultural teaching. Understanding differences in non-verbal communication will affect whether a cross-cultural worker is very effective or merely somewhat effective in reaching his or her audience, and workers should work to adapt in cross-cultural settings. Paralanguage Definition Paralanguage is “ the sounds and tones we use in conversation and the speech behavior that accompanies the message. Simply put, it is how something is said, not what is said. ” 2  Non-word sounds and characteristics of speech are paralinguistic features. These include accents, 1 Ting-Toomey, Stella, and Leeva C. Chung. Understanding Intercultural Communication . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011. 2 Ibid.   2  pitch range, pitch intensity, volume, articulation, and rate. 3  The difference can be between sounding simply playful and seeming harsh, depending on how the culture interprets the  paralanguage. Because we often cannot detect tone changes when conversing in another language, it is very easy to make mistakes with interpreting paralanguage. Application Paralanguage applies to my current ministry teaching to students from different cultures in the Washington D.C. area because the way that a teacher says her words is impactful. Many students may misinterpret their teachers as distant or uncaring because of their harsh tone. Although it will be the responsibility of the students to adjust to their teachers, the teacher should still be aware of the difference between how different cultures raise or lower their voices, and other paralinguistic features in order to communicate well in the classroom and understand what students mean. Often times students come into the public system directly from overseas, and cannot even speak English well. Paralanguage understanding will apply at my school directly. Facial Expressions Definition Facial expressions can be explained through kinesics, which also is the study of posture,  body movement, and gestures. 4  There is a certain universality of decoding basic facial expressions, but specific facial emotions can be much more difficult. Different cultures identify different emotions better than others, such as Americans being able to identify anger better than 3 Ting-Toomey, Stella, and Leeva C. Chung. Understanding Intercultural Communication . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011. 4 Ibid.   3 Japanese. 5  Some cultures regulate their facial expressions better because of their cultural norms, which plays a factor into the difficulty in decoding some facial expressions. Application At my school, I need to better understand facial expressions in order to differentiate  better what the shy person is trying to convey as much as the loud person. Due to cultural differences in the classroom, I will often come across Japanese and Middle Eastern students recently immigrated and by understanding that students may express differently than me I can avoid punishing students for an expression that I take disrespectfully that might not have been intended on their part. Gestures Definition “ Gestures are culturally specific and significant forms of nonverbal communication. In fact, they are much more elaborate and more frequently used in Italian culture than in U.S. culture. The four basic categories of hand gestures and body movements have been categorized as emblems, illustrators, regulators, and adaptors .” 6  An emblem substitutes a word or phrase, and and illustrator is a non- verbal hand gesture, such as using one’s hands to make a heart when sayin g “I love you.” Application Gestures will be applied in my workplace in order to help communicate an idea, perhaps when the classroom is being loud or something needs emphasis. I will be sure to explain any gestures that I naturally make that seem they could be confusing to students, although I have not in the past had any miscommunication with gestures. I will remain open to learning here. 5 Ting-Toomey, Stella, and Leeva C. Chung. Understanding Intercultural Communication . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011. 138 6 Ibid.
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