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[Book Review] Sensing World Sensing Wisdom_Reviewed by JiSeong J. Kwon

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[Book Review] Sensing World Sensing Wisdom_Reviewed by JiSeong J. Kwon
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  Sensing World, Sensing Wisdom: The Cognitive Foundation of Biblical Metaphors Written by Nicole L. TilfordReviewed by JiSeong James KwonThis book challenges the belief that the metaphor in the ible performs a secondary  p!rpose" and that they are the stylistic embellishment as rhetorical devices merely added to srcinal te#ts and no more than inessential literary flo!rishes. $nstead of that s!pposition"  Nicole Tilford s!pports the !nderstanding of modern philosophers that %metaphors were intimately connected to concrete e#perience and have the capacity to str!ct!re h!man tho!ght& 'p. ()" and she arg!es that metaphors are %ling!istic reali*ation of what they called +concept!al metaphors,&" namely" f!ndamental cognitive devices" patterns" and str!ct!res %bywhich individ!als organi*e their perception of reality& 'p. (). To evince that metaphors are the process of concept!alisation that abstract meanings are linked to individ!al and c!lt!ral e#periences 'incl!ding something corporeal and ne!rological)" she p!ts forth common sensory activities s!ch as seeing" hearing-speaking" to!ching" ingesting" breathing" and moving developed in primary and comple# metaphors of biblical wisdom corp!s. etaphorical meanings in wisdom literat!re are determined not only by %!niversal"  biological& dimensions behind h!man cognition 's!pported by cognitive scientists) b!t also  by the c!lt!re and s!bc!lt!re to which the a!thors belong 's!pported by anthropologists and historians) 'pp. ((/(0). These d!al infl!ences have already been arg!ed by scholars s!ch as 1eorge Lakoff" ark Johnson" and 2hris Sinha" b!t Tilford synthetically employs the metaphoric theory into the st!dy of wisdom te#ts.What is less pers!asive3what is not f!lly e#plained from what she presented 'chap. () 3is how Tilford searches the historical conte#t and !nderstands the c!lt!ral milie! of the comm!nity that interpreted the reg!lar cognitive processes and corporeal metaphors that formed wisdom literat!re. 4ollowing the conventional belief abo!t biblical writers s!ch as  priests" shepherds" farmers" and craftsmen" she ass!mes 5sages6 and 5scribal elites5 as the only professional a!thors who shaped wisdom te#ts. This" however" seems to be anachronic and in fact" it is !nnecessary to trace its intellect!al setting as a circle of professional sages7 e.g." arg!ed by Whybray" en 8vi" and Kna!f.$n 2hapter 0" the relatively !niversal paradigm" %cognition is perception& 'cognition is seeing" cognition is hearing" cognition is smelling) is e#amined. What she arg!es is that this specifically varies across c!lt!res and emerges in different systems of correlated metaphors and perceptions7 e.g." in 9S" %knowing is seeing&" %obeying is hearing&" and %g!essing is smelling&. 9sing the the scientifical model of $barret#e/:nt!;ano abo!t prototypical  properties '<erceiver =<R>" ?b@ect of <erception =?<>" and :ct of <erception =<>) and their modalities 'e.g." %contact&" %closeness&" %internal&" etc.)" Tilford e#plains why there is the diversity in concept!al metaphors for perception-cognition across c!lt!res. $n this vein" the conception of modalities in biblical wisdom te#ts is 5somatic5 associated with 5physical organs and their embodied e#periences5" and lacks 5abstract terminology for each terminology5 'p. AB). The term 5wisdom5 is possibly interpreted as 5a cohesive +network of e#periential categories65 and as 5an attit!de" a moral character5" and 5an intellect!al capacity5.:mongst metaphors in wisdom literat!re" Tilford divides them into three semantic areasC 'D) knowledge7 '() emotion7 '0) moral @!dgment. The first cognitive metaphor is sightC %the cognition is seeing&. The eye commonly has the capacity adversely to attack and harm e#ternal ob@ects thro!gh illness and chaos 'N!m (0CD07 Job BCDE)" sight has the power to overwhelm individ!als" sight is !nderstood to be a means of providing a direct e#perience" and of eval!ating and identifying ob@ects. etaphors and properties of vision are concept!alised in the domain of abstract intellection s!ch as knowledge acF!isition" emotional e#perience" and moral @!dgment. ?n the one hand" seeing  is considering" !nderstanding and concl!ding. ?n the other hand" seeing is related to satisfaction '5good eye5) or dissatisfaction '5bad eye5)" and seeing f!nctions as the domain of moral @!dgment.$n the same way" other cognitive metaphors of cognition in sapiential te#ts are derived from the e#perience of the oral-a!ditory" tactile" ingestion" and breathing domain. 4or e#ample" the tactile sense is !nderstood to be means of teaching3%Teaching is transferring an ob@ect to another& '<rov ECE7 (CG7 Hoh (C(G)3and giving discipline-instr!ction 3%$nstr!ction is a lashing& '<rov D0C(A7 (GC07 0CDD/D(7 DIC007 ((CDI). That Tilford,s analysis is disting!ished from ael :vrahami,s work ':vrahami (D() is the acco!nt of emotion metaphors to tactility7 e.g." %being afraid is being sei*ed& 'Job DC(7 (DCG)" %persistence is grasping& 'Job (C07 (CE7 (BCG)" %anger-sorrow is heavy& '<rov (BC07 Job GC(/0)" %fear is a soft heart& '<rov (CDA7 Job (0CDG)" and %st!bbornness is a hard heart-neck& '<rov (ECD). :nother dominant characteristic of this book is ingestion and breathing serving the f!nction as so!rce domains for emotive metaphor7 'D) e.g." 5desire is h!nger-thirst5" 5satisfaction is f!llness-dissatisfaction is emptiness5" 5en@oyment is sweet" distress is bitter5" 5en@oyment is toeat good57 '() e.g. 5patience is a long breath5" 5impatience is a short breath5" 5h!mility is a low breath5" 5pride is a high breath5" 5anger is a hot nose5" 5calm is a cool breath5" and 5to be disliked is to stink5. 4inally" 2hapter D disc!sses the comple# and cl!stered metaphors to form new modes of coordinating cognitive knowledge and to create the new meanings. Whilethe comple# metaphors are developed by e#tending a dominant metaphor" cl!stered metaphors are created by blending different images and metaphors together. ?verall" Tilford,s detailed and scientific analysis helps to broaden o!r !nderstanding of the relationship between perception and cognition. Mowever" there are areas for improvementas well. What her cr!cial synthesis lacks is the s!ggestion of how each biblical wisdom book can be freshly interpreted from insights of respective perceptions/metaphors and comple# metaphors. $f these metaphors and corporeal disco!rses were drawn from biological and c!lt!ral elements and from specifically c!lt!ral characteristics" how co!ld each a!thor of wisdom books differently !nderstand the world" h!mans" and 1od We leave this matter !nsettled. $nterested readers will likely find many insights by reading this book with ael :vrahami,s The Senses of Scripture: Sensory Perception in the Hebrew Bible  '(D()" which  provides an e#emplary st!dy of sense and sensori!m of Script!re7 <ierre van Mecke,s edited vol!me"  Metaphor in the Hebrew Bible . OTL '(I)" which contains fifteen essays abo!t the st!dy of metaphor and its methodology.
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